Parkinson 's Disease : Symptoms And Treatment

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Parkinson 's disease is a chronic progressive neurological disorder in which cells are slowly lost in the brain over the years. The fact that cells are lost makes it a neurodegenerative disorder fitting in the same category as Alzheimer disease. A person with Parkinson’s disease can also experience a wide range of physical and psychological symptoms, including depression, constipation, problems sleeping (insomnia), loss of sense of smell (anosmia) and memory problems. () The three main symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are: - Tremor (involuntary shaking of particular parts of the body) - Slow movement (Bradykinesia) - Stiff and inflexible muscles () Parkinson 's disease usually develops later on in life, commonly between the ages of 40-80, but also occurs in younger and older individuals. Unfortunately there is no current cure or any definitive therapy which has been shown to slow the progression or prevent the disease. Levadopa is the most standard treatment for neurological disease, nearly all patients showed signs of improvement when Levadopa is used. Parkinson’s disease affects many area of the brain, this is because several different cells types degenerate and many different systems are affected. The various different chemical systems affected in the brain are: Substancia Negra, Locus Cereleus, Raphe Nuclei, Ventral Tegmental Area and Nuclues Basalus. () The area that is most affected in Parkinson’s disease, is the Substancia Negra. The cell in this part of the brain produce the neurotransmitter Dopamine. Generally about 50% of the dopamine producing cells have degenerated before motor symptoms of the Parkinson’s disease began. The dopamine released in the Substancia Negra are released in a physiological fashion in order to ... ... middle of paper ... ... lost in Parkinson 's. Levodopa is given with benserazide or carbidopa, to make sure it can enter the brain more efficiently. Benserazide plus levodopa is known as co-beneldopa. Carbidopa plus levodopa is known as co-careldopa. There are branded and unbranded forms of levodopa available. These include: - co-beneldopa (Madopar, Madopar CR) - co-careldopa (Caramet CR, Duodopa, Sinemet, Sinemet Plus, Sinemet CR, Half Sinemet CR, Lecado, unbranded form) - co-careldopa plus entacapone (Stalevo) Although the main treatment for Parkinson 's is medication, there are some types of surgery available to treat the symptoms of the condition, it is generally only used to treat people who have had Parkinson 's for some time and whose symptoms are not managed effectively by medication. The main types of surgery for Parkinson 's are: - Deep Brain Stimulation - Lesioning techniques

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