“Traditionally, the term “fingerprint” refers to the patterns, which are highly characteristic for any human individual, of the ridged skin of the distal finger phalanges…’fingerprinting’ has also been used for the electrophoretic and chromatographic characterization of proteins and, more recently, of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules” (2) DNA fingerprinting has become a big part of our criminal system. Being able to show that someone committed a crime due to DNA is straight out of a science fiction novel but today we do it. In order to understand what DNA Fingerprinting is we first must look at what DNA is. DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid; DNA is the blueprint for everything in the human body. DNA is a double stranded or a double helix molecule, which means it sort of, looks like a type of ladder, it is made of four nucleotides: Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Thymine.
The growing databases of animal genes have given wildlife researchers and environmentalists a powerful new tool to find new species and protect endangered animals. Scientists know the genetic profiles of some species so well they can tell the region or population they come from by examining the DNA of an individual animal. DNA profiling is being used comprehensively for paternity testing because of its capacity to determine to a high degree of certainty about the claims to be a child's parents or grandparents. This will enable the investigating agencies to either include or exclude possible source of DNA found in relation to a criminal investigation. It is also true that DNA profiling can only be used if there is enough DNA in the samples.
Deoxyribonucleic acid or more commonly known as DNA can be utilized to identify criminals with unbelievable precision when biological evidence exists. Not only this but, DNA can be utilized to prove suspects innocent and redeem mistakenly accused or those convicted of crimes can be let free. It is vital to understand the structure and function of DNA and how this relates to DNA investigation in forensic science. It is essential to understand the basics of deoxyribonucleic acid like the structure and function. Having this information creates a better understanding of how forensic scientists use DNA to identify people when biological evidence exists.
Serology is a science that has become outdated but helped prosecutors narrow down suspects. It ultimately led to the development of DNA testing, the culprit for its demise. Edmund Locard was the innovator behind the concept of trace evidence and how particles can be compared microscopically to help in crime solving. All of these aspects of forensics potentially led to the development of DNA testing and laid the groundwork for future expansion.
The use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples in forensic case work has become an increasingly staple piece of evidence. DNA provides unique information about an individual found as short tandem repeats (STRs) located in the nucleus of cells. DNA analysis enables forensic scientists to purify, extract and amplify STRs to generate a genetic profile allowing alleles to be seen that belong to a single person. These STRs are seen as fragments and are amplified or copied numerous times to allow for easier detection. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is used to analyze DNA sequences found in biological fluids.
This is important because it helps compose the pieces to DNA and helps find traces to the victim. “The more useful sources include blood, semen, vaginal fluid, nasal secretions and hair with roots” (http://forensicsciencecentral.co.uk/dna.shtml). This quote is important because it singles out the most occurrence of DNA. In order for DNA testing to take place scientists will have t... ... middle of paper ... ...Mrs. Hiller found her husband dead. Investigators found some particles of sand and gravel by the daughters bed.
The individualistic characteristic is a key feature of DNA that assists in solving... ... middle of paper ... ...ght crime, but funding sources can slow the process. If funding is not available for states to reduce their current offender backlogs, databases will remain unavailable to aid law enforcement with criminal investigations. . It is up to the criminal justice system is to realize the “full potential of DNA evidence as a crime fighting tool” (Wilson, Forman, & Asplen 1999), efforts must be made both to solve the database backlog of today and to promote DNA evidence use throughout all levels of law enforcement. As criminals become cleverer, evidence like DNA becomes even more important.
DNA is known as a deoxyribonucleic acid. Every single cell contains DNA and every living organism contains DNA. DNA is in many things like people’s blood, saliva, skin tissue, hair, and bone. In that case DNA could play a big role in evidence of different cases like criminal cases. DNA could help convict people that are guilty or they could eliminate those who were wrongly accused.
Simpson trial (SMC History , 2011). DNA analysis is a scientific process among the newest and most sophisicated of techniques used to test for genetic disorders, which involves direct examination of the DNA molecule itself (Lyman, 2014) . Today crime labs use mtDNA analysis. This type of analysis allows smaller degraded pieces of DNA to still be successfully tested (Lyman, 2014) . There are several steps taken when analyzing DNA in forensics.
Scientist have to search the scene of a crime for physical evidence of a suspect to link this person to the crime . The intelligent use of your eyes and nose along with judgement and common sense will attribute to the findings of evidence at a crime scene . To make evidence useful at a crime scene, it must be unique to a person . This can then be used as conclusive evidence in a case and carries more weight as evidence . Reconstructing the scene of crime will be helpful when examining the distribution of evidence.