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    Cellular organization denotes the cellular nature of life where the cell is the basic unit of life. Organisms are either unicellular (made up of only one cell) or multicellular (made up of several cell) (Simpson and Beck, 1965). In terms of cells, eukaryotes and prokaryotes are basic terms. A eukaryotic cell can be distinguished further into an animal or a plant cell. The main difference between the eukaryotic and the prokaryotic cell is the primitive nature of the prokaryotic cell (Simpson and Beck

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    Endosymbiosis and evolution of Organelles

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    Endosymbiosis is important as it enables us to understand the evolution of eukaryotes from the common ancestor. This essay will focus on: the early evolution of our eukaryote ancestor during Precambrian period, plastids origin along the algae family due to second endosymbiosis; discuss the evidence that supports the theory, including further examples of endosymbiosis. The theory, as discussed by Lynn Margulis, states that mitochondria originated from α-proteobacteria bacterium which was engulfed

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    Microorganisms are very tiny living organisms. They are microscopic and may be unicellular or multicellular (Madigan and Martinko 2006). The microorganisms include all prokaryotes and some eukaryotes. They are usually not visible to the naked eye, but some macroscopic ones can be seen with naked eye also (Max Planck Society Research News Released Accessed 15 September 2012). Microorganisms include bacteria, archaea, protozoa, fungi, algae and some members of the kingdom Animalia such as rotifers

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    photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts in the eukaryotes and in the prokaryotes, it takes place in the cytoplasm whereas the process of respiration occurs in the mitochondria in the eukaryotes and it occurs in the cytoplasm in the prokaryotes. In both photosynthesis and respiration, energy has to be generated in both the prokaryotes and the eukaryotes. Photosynthesis is an endothermic process taking place in the chloroplast in most of the eukaryotes and prokaryotes while the process of respiration

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    Endosymbiosis Theory

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    lies within the origin of the eukaryote cell. This remarkable event consisted of a revolution of cell type matched in momentousness by the arrival on the biological scene of the prokaryote (O’Malley). Bacteria had a couple billion years head start on eukaryotes and have given rise to many biochemical processes that are essential to the ecosystem (Wernergreen). One organism living within another defines endosymbiosis. Nobody can say the exact origin of the eukaryote cell. The endosymbiosis theory

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    Evolutionary Basis for Ethics and Morals

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    in What Evolution Is, "the rich diversity of protists gave rise to multicellular descendant, some of which then led to plants, fungi, and animals," and indeed the change from simple prokaryotes to the more complex eukaryotes, and from single-celled eukaryotes to multicellular eukaryotes, seems to mirror human development into ethical beings – assuming that Hobbes' story is true (Mayr 60). The multicellular organisms, "which, thanks to a division of labor among a gang of specialist cells," could now

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    Theories on Cell Fusion

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    Theories on Cell Fusion Endosymbiotic theory commonly asserts that the eukaryotic endomembranes and cytoskeleton originated and formed a type of proto-eukaryotes that started engulfing and using other prokaryotes, thus explaining the presence of bacterial genes in mitochondria. Many scientists are now contesting this idea based on new data. This new data shows that some of the machinery for transcription and translation of DNA may be from archaea, instead of the theory that most or all genetic

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    A muri ricint ivulatounost uf thi thiury os Lynn Mergalos, whu os femuas thruagh hir risierch ceriir thet meonly fucasid un thos cuncipt. It wes Boulugost Lynn Mergalos frum Bustun Unovirsoty whu on 1967 bigen tu till en uldir voiw. Shi saggistid thet cirteon prukeryutis hed biin uvirtekin by lergir muri ectovi spicois. Instied uf biong dogistid onsodi thi hust cill sumi voctoms cuntonaid tu throvi end gruw. Thi thiury uf Endusymbousos discrobis thi urogon uf chluruplests end motuchundroe end thior

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    Eukaryotic and Prokatyotic Cell Structure

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    Eukaryotic Cell Structure Plant cells are unique among the eukaryotes (Greek for “true kernel”) (Origins. 2009) organisms whose cells have membrane-enclosed nuclei and organelles, because they can manufacture their own nutrients. Like the fungi, another kingdom of eukaryotes, plant cells have retained the protective cell wall structure of their prokaryotic ancestors. The basic plant cell shares a similar construction with the typical eukaryote cell, but does not have centrioles, lysosomes, intermediate

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    Types of Microorganisms

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    has included the Archaea, the Bacteria and the Eukarya (Madigan, Martinko, Stahl, & Clark, 2012) (refer to Figure 1 in Appendix 1). Archaea is the first domain of microorganisms. Archaeas are unicellular prokaryotes which vary from bacteria and eukaryotes (Pack, 2007). Pack (2007) stated that the cell walls of Archaeas consist of polysaccharides while the plasma membranes are made up of phospholipids. According to Cohen (2011), archaeal cell walls do not have peptidoglycan, cellulose or chitin

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