Additionally, the petty favors and patronage they provided was thinly spread amongst their beneficiaries to maximize voter support and loyalty. According to some urban scholars such as Steven Erie, this system did little to provide a real basis for social upward mobility for its immigrant constituents. Eventually, the gross mismanagement of limited governmental funding coupled with the persistent demands of a growing immobilized immigrant population left this system vulnerable to being solely accountable for the financial crises which occurred in New York City. Despite its overall contrary portrayal, machine politics gained power because it provided a
Through labor migration, ecological and industrial consequences in urbanization, and global inequalities, it is clear to see the implications the widening gap of wealth inequality has on people. The urban poor are often put out of view because of the need for an industrialized society, yet the consequences of both an elite and middle class directly influence the people who cannot support that type of lifestyle. The gaps created need to be looked upon and treated, as Mike Davis believes this planet will become so dependent on this slum life that urban life will disappear. Globalization directly affects migration through labor, as well as industry movement which only grow the global inequalities at hand and through this will create a “planet of
“Overurbanization,” in other words, is driven by the reproduction of poverty, not by the supply of jobs” (Davis 16). To sum up, the globalization is not either good or bad but just an idea for the best of the world. It has brought industrialization, technological advancement, employment and development to the cities as well. Although globalization has been a source of good development, it also has had its disadvantages such as increment in poverty and slum population, exploitation, environmental problems, shut down of little business, and inequality around the world.
The outcomes of this development were increasing pollution in cities, decreasing agricultural production because of migration of farmers to cities, unavoidable congestion phenomena such as traffic jams, and a shortage of urban infrastructure. (Welfare and Capitalism, in Post-war Japan) Those were products of post-war rapid growth in Japan. Places like Tokyo had been suffered these factors. However, industrialization intensified around cities and caused to emerge air and water pollution which directly affected people who lived in those regions. As a final, many disasters occurred during those times which pushed the government to take measures in order to halt pollution as a consequence of rapid industrialization.
The words of books had more meaning to Frank than most would have gotten out of it. Books allowed Frank to go off to different places. “It’s lovely to know the world can’t interfere with the inside of your head”. (202) They allowed much time to pass and gave him things to think and dream. Yet while he was still poverty stricken and adults wanted to rule his whole life, including his mind, he always had what he has learned and the stories he read kept to himself that no one could take away.
There are several reasons why Chicago is a logical beginning. In many ways, the nascent laborers of Chicago set the groundwork for the numerous benefits contemporary workers have. Earlier labor movements, like so much other history, were centered in Chicago (Cohen, 7). It just so happens that extraordinary political changes in labor took place during the interwar period, and Chicago was the largest industrial city in America then (Cohen, 7). Because Chicago was replete with ethnicity, it is also possible to conduct comparative labor studies.
Korea, as one of the developing countries, experienced what is called ‘ overurbanization,’ and it experienced a number of negative consequences of it, although it could achieve a great economic development by it. This paper examines how urbanization differs between the West and the rest of the world, the characteristics and process of urbanization in Korea, problems sprung from its extreme urbanization, and government policies coping with population distribution. 2. Difference between Urbanization in the Developed and in Developing Countries Urbanization in developed countries in the West differs between the periods of before and after the Industrial Revolution. Before the revolution, the pre-capitalism cities were the center for government power and commercial activities.
At the time of movement the main problems confronted by the American society was the gigantic growth of cities and industries. Hundreds of thousands of African Americans started migrating to the northern cities. This huge wave of migration being main cause of growth coupled with disastrous working conditions presented a worse scenario. The new comers strived to adapt to entirely new conditions at one hand while trying hard to maintain their distinctive culture and language system on the other creating a complex situation. Wealth concentrated in few hands and a large segment of people were caught in the vicious circle of poverty.
With his book How the Other Half Lives, Riis offers the audience a glimpse into the unsettling and unnoticed reality of the urban poverty in America at the turn of the 19th century. Not only he revealed the dark side of the society, he also showed the urgent need for change. Riis used emotional as well as logical appeal to support his argument in favor of the need for a social reform. By combining powerful pictures and detailed annotations accounting the conditions of life in the New York, Riis made How the Other Half Lives unique and very effective in delivering his message and initiating a change. How the Other Half Lives served as a wake up call for the upper and middle class and installed a feeling of moral responsibility.
Immigration has changed the demographics of the US. It has contributed to a massive growth of the US population. The inflow of immigrants has added a good mix of various ethnic and racial groups to the US population. The immigrant groups have had a tremendous impact on the social, cultural, economic and political landscape of the US. Initially Europeans came into America as immigrants during the Industrial Revolution.