The virus can be transmitted only if such HIV-infected fluids enter the bloodstream of another person. This kind of direct entry can occur (1) through the linings of the vagina, rectum, mouth, and the opening at the tip of the penis; (2) through intravenous injection with a syringe; or (3) through a break in the skin, such as a cut or sore. Usually, HIV is transmitted through: Unprotected sexual intercourse (either vaginal or anal) with someone who is HIV infected. In western countries, women are four times more likely to contract HIV through vaginal sex with infected males than vice versa.
Until recently it was believed that AIDS related deaths as a result of HIV infection were caused primarily by opportunistic infections, usually bacterial or fungal, gaining a foothold in an immuno-compromised individual. Many of these secondary infections are the result of T-cell mediated immunodeficiency induced by HIV. The sequels of HIV infection often leads to a neuropathological state as a result of unusual secondary infections such as Toxoplasmosis. Postmortem studies have demonstrated that in addition to secondary infection, neurological manifestations may be due to vascular events, tumors (CNS lymphoma) and direct HIV-1 infection. In humans, HIV is known to infect T-lymphocytes within the body binding to the CD-4 receptors present on the cell surface, but in the brain, recent studies have suggested that microglial cells and macrophages serve as the reservoirs of HIV.
In the United States HIV is mainly spread by having unprotected sex with someone who is infected by the HIV virus. Anal sex is the highest risk, followed by vaginal sex. You are more likely to become infected with the virus if you have multiple sex partners or other sexually transmitted diseases. Also, it is a bad idea to share needles, syringes, or rinse water with someone who is infected with the HIV virus. However, children can be born from a mother who is infected and it can be passed on to the child during birth.
Aids is caused mainly by the HIV-1 virus, while the HIV-2 virus is less pronounced among those infected. Scientists are puzzled as to why this dominant HIV-1 virus has 10 different genetic subtypes, some think that it is so the virus will survive no matter what. HIV is part of a group of viruses called retroviruses. This category basically describes how the virus transmits and reproduces itself. Which is to say that upon entering the body the virus attaches itself to a T-4 cell(T-Helper cell), which is the type of cell that marks the bad things in our body so that another cell, the B-lymphocyte, can activate the production of antibodies, which are what would normally kill the virus.
The discovery of HIV, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus that causes AIDS, was made soon after. By the end of 1982 it was notable that a wide group of people would be affected because the high number of deaths from an unknown virus (Avert, 2002). HIV became the leading cause of death for African American women between the ages of 25 and 44 and HIV is beginning to rise in American Indian and Alaska Native communit... ... middle of paper ... ... HIV symptoms 8 References Avert. (2002, Jan). History of AIDS.
HIV Research Paper There are several ways which Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) can spread from person to person. Sexual behaviors are on the top of the list for HIV’s routes of transmissions. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), HIV is primarily transmitted through contact with an infected person’s needle, blood, semen, pre-seminal fluid, or vaginal fluids (2014). Unprotected sex is the most common way of HIV transfusion because while the symptoms many have not yet emerged, the virus can still spread, stated the CDC (2014). Unfortunately, HIV can also be passed on to the fetus by an infected mother during pregnancy, delivery, or through breast milk, the CDC reported (2014).
Once the virus weakens the immune system to a point where it no longer protects one against diseases, every organ can be affected by either an opportunistic infection or a tumour. A key specialized cell that is affected by HIV/AIDS is the CD4 cell or the t-cell. This cell helps humans protects themselves against very common but deadly diseases. The HIV virus attacks these cells and uses them to make more HIV cells. ... ... middle of paper ... ...otested by many.
The virus invades cells that are vital for the immune system to work properly.HIV causes depletion of immune cells as a result of viral replication.The virus causes persistent infection of the immune system, leading to low counts of CD4+ T cells .Helper T-cell depletion occurs during HIV-1 infection.Low levels of such cells are brought on by different mechanisms during the infection. Although the actual pathway that causes cell death within the host is not fully understood , a few mechanisms seem to play an important role . These mechanisms include cell apoptosis, viral induced cell death of infected bystander cells, and elimination of infected cells caused by CD8 killer T-cells. With low levels of CD4+ T cells , the immune system does not respond properly to pathogens, therefor the host becomes susceptible to infections. These infections include opportunistic infections and tumors that would otherwise be harmless to humans.
Where monogamous heterosexuality is a healthy and normal phenomena if both the partners are HIV negative, heterosexuality with multiple partners can lead to heterosexual HIV infection. In the western nations, Homosexuality was the biggest cause of spawning HIV at the nascent stage of the epidemi... ... middle of paper ... ...nt goes below 200. 7. Toxoplasmosis- This disease is caused due to protozoa, when the CD4 count goes below 200. 8.
As the world evolved health problems have evolved with it. One of the many health problems that medical professionals deal with today is HIV/AIDS. HIV is a virus spread through body fluids that affects specific cells of the immune system, called CD4 cells, or T cells. Over time, HIV can destroy so many of these cells that the body can’t fight off infections and disease. When this happens, HIV infection leads to AIDS (www.cdc.gov).