The AIDS virus has an external envelope, made of lipid and protein. This envelope is derived from the cell membrane of the host cell in which the virus replicated. The virus contains reverse transcriptase enzyme. AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; meaning that one is able to catch it, it is a weakness in the body’s system that fights diseases, and is a group of health problems that makes up a disease. A virus called HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) causes AIDS.
Because treatment regimens are unpleasant and complex, many patients miss doses of their medication. Failure to take anti-HIV drugs on schedule and in the prescribed dosage encourages the development of new viral strains that are resistant to current HIV drugs. Even among those who do respond well to treatment, HAART does not eradicate HIV. The virus continues to replicate at low levels and often remains hidden in "reservoirs" in the body, such as the lymph nodes and brain. In the U.S., the number of AIDS-related deaths has decreased dramatically because of widely available potent treatment.
The virus invades cells that are vital for the immune system to work properly.HIV causes depletion of immune cells as a result of viral replication.The virus causes persistent infection of the immune system, leading to low counts of CD4+ T cells .Helper T-cell depletion occurs during HIV-1 infection.Low levels of such cells are brought on by different mechanisms during the infection. Although the actual pathway that causes cell death within the host is not fully understood , a few mechanisms seem to play an important role . These mechanisms include cell apoptosis, viral induced cell death of infected bystander cells, and elimination of infected cells caused by CD8 killer T-cells. With low levels of CD4+ T cells , the immune system does not respond properly to pathogens, therefor the host becomes susceptible to infections. These infections include opportunistic infections and tumors that would otherwise be harmless to humans.
Viruses are small infectious particles consist of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA), an outer coat called capsid and sometimes a glycoprotein envelope. While some viruses have RNA as a genetic material such as hepatitis C virus, others have DNA such as poxviruses. Some studies consider viruses as a non-living organisms because of the fact that they cannot reproduce and synthesize their essential materials independently (NCBI, 2004). Viruses can infect bacteria, animals and plants (UXL Encyclopedia of Science, 2002). As they lack many structures that are needed for growth and replication like ribosomes, they are an obligatory intracellular parasites and need to invade living cells to produce their basic materials like proteins, amino acids and fats.
The cell then unknowingly transcribes the virus’ DNA and translated proteins necessary for the virus. The virus is difficult to detect until it affects the human cell. An interesting thing about HIV is that while other viruses contain the gene for the enzymes they require within their nucleic acids, HIV directly has the enzyme RNA Transcriptase. The activity of the enzyme enables the genetic information of HIV to become integrated pe... ... middle of paper ... ... Along with this, evolution of viruses (changing surface antigen frequently) has made such diseases difficult to suppress.
S. aureus is both pathogenic and opportunistic, taking every chance it gets to evolve and become more infectious. While it is found in the normal flora of the human skin, it is not until it invades the body and becomes truly pathogenic that a person should worry about this fact. So if it is on the skin, all it needs is a break in the skin or an opportunity to invade the host cells and do the damage. If there is a cut in the skin and the bacteria make it inside or even worse, into the bloodstream, they attack the cells and spread throughout the body. There are other situations in which this bacteria could become resistant and once it has, virulence factors help it to invade and spread rapidly.
2) A protein which is extremely important in a hazardous virus because is provides a strong, protective barrier as the virus passes from cell to cell.2 Viruses do not contain the enzymes and metabolic pressures needed for self-duplication. The missing components are taken from the host cells they infect. Replication begins when the virus enters the cell. The enzymes remove the coat of the virus, and the RNA or DNA particles come in contact with the ribosomes in the cell. The virus then finds the protein by using the nucleic acid.
Next, the patient gets the symptoms. Then the patient may die or recover spontaneously, or the infection may respond to specific therapy. Often there is an immunity. Infectious diseases have strongly influenced the course of history on Earth. The organisms responsible for human infections are viruses.
Many viruses have a membranous envelope that covering their capsid. Composed of the host cell’s membrane, the membrane helps with the “life” cycle when the virus is taking over the host cell. The question of whether or not a virus is a living object or a complex protein is often fuzzy. When isolated from a host cell, a virus is unable to replicate, produce energy, or any other activities required for life. This makes them nothing more than a protein coated set of genes in transit from one host to another, a biological gene transport mechanism.
One of the cons is that for some people it’s impossible to access that treatment in the first place. According to the CDC the estimated lifetime cost of treating HIV is $ 500, 000 and nearly 30% of those living with this disease are uninsured (healthline.com). If you think about it, as of right now about 1 million people live with HIV here in the United States. This makes about 300,000 people living with HIV and not being able to have access to treatment here in the United States. Without the proper treatment, their HIV infection will lead into AIDS, which can lead to death if they are not taking medication for it.