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WM involves ‘the temporary storage and manipulation of information’ necessary for the operation of complex cognitive tasks (Hummel & Holyoak 2003); WM therefore is an indicator of our capacity for thinking and for language processing. The present study will be empirically examining the possible relation between WM working memory and L2 vocabulary learning to test the hypothesis that the capacity of WM is correlated with vocabulary learning rate. Background of literature A WM model first proposed by Baddeley and Hitch in 1974 consists of three basic components: the central executive, the phonological loop and the visual/ spatial sketchpad. In 2000 this model was extended with the multimodal episodic buffer. The central executive directs information to the three processes: the phonological loop, the visual/ spatial sketchpad, and the episodic buffer.
Pakulak, E., & Neville, H. J. (2011). Maturational constraints on the recruitment of early processes for syntactic processing. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23(10), 2752-2765. Tokowicz, Natasha and MacWhinney, Brian, "Implicit and Explicit Measures of Sensitivity to Violations in Second Language Grammar: An Event-Related Potential Investigation" (2005).
http://www.ptb.ias.edu/nowak/pdf/Science01.pdf 8) A concept of 'critical period' for language acquisition, Its implication for adult language learning by Katsumi Nagai. http://www.tsuyama-ct.ac.jp/kats/papers/kn7/kn7.htm 9) Brain signatures of artificial language processing: Evidence challenging the critical language hypothesis by Angela Friederici, Karsten Steinhauer, and Erdmut Pfeifer. http://www.giccs.georgetown.edu/~steinhau/pnas2002.pdf
Frontiers In Human Neuroscience, 7doi:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00261 Giannakopoulou, A., Uther, M., & Ylinen, S. (2013). Enhanced plasticity in spoken language acquisitiopn for child learners: Evidence from phonetic training studies in child and adult learners of english. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 29(2), 201-218. doi: 10.1177/0265659012467473 Krizman, J., Marian, V., Shook, A., Skoe, E., & Kraus, N. (2012). Subcortical encoding of sound is enhanced in bilinguals and relates to executive function advantges. PNAS, 109(20), 7877-7881. doi: 10.1073 Pallier, C. (2003).
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However, both theories agree TOT states occur when the brain is able to carry out lexical selection of ... ... middle of paper ... ...L., & Burke, D. (2000). Phonological priming effects on word retrieval and tip-of-the-tongue experiences in young and older adults. Journal Of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, And Cognition, 26(6), 1378. Kornell, N., & Metcalfe, J. (2006).
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