Racial formation can be defined as “the sociohistorical process by which racial categories are created, inhabited, transformed, and destroyed” (Omi and Winant 55). Both Indians and African Americans were subject to this categorization of race. From Andrea Smith’s racial hierarchy system to Edward Countryman’s examination of projects of colonialism and slavery, the oppression of races, which connects both racialization and colonization, can be seen as the ideal in which the nation is built upon. The creation of racial representation, policies, and social structures seek to undermine other races as inferior, all the while justifying the acts of cruelty and deception in which the nation is founded on.
Since the beginning of colonization, America has been controlled by religiously and ethically diverse whites. The most profound cases of racism in the “United” States of America have been felt by Native Americans, Asians, African Americans, Mexican Americans, and Muslims. Major racially structured institutions include; slavery, settlement, Indian reservations, segregation, residential schools, and internment camps (Racism in the U.S., 1). Racism has been felt and seen by many in housing, the educational system, places of employment, and the government. Discrimination was largely criminalized in the mid 20th century, and at the same time became socially unacceptable and morally repugnant (Racism in the U.S., 1). Although racism was
The Untied States of America was built on the exploitation of others and the expansion of foreign lands. Anglo-Saxon superiority and their successive impact on governing policies and strong domination throughout every social institution in the nation allowed discrimination to prevail. Scientific Racism reached new heights of justification towards slavery, the massive eradication of the Native people, colonialism and daily occurrences of unequal behaviors and treatments towards colored people. The strong presence of polygenesis helped spur along and justify racism; the idea that all non whites were groups of individuals who ultimately came from another type of species supporting the idea that Blacks, Natives and other colored people were not ‘real’ human beings. Traditions, legislation, domination and acceptance of such social norms allow racism to be principal whether it was apparent through slavery or hidden in new laws and policies to come. Every aspect of a colored person’s life was affected upon, Education, economic status, environmental location and political rights. Those who had the power within the court system followed the Anglo-Saxon ways, making any change difficult and time consuming to come across.
It can be traced all the way back to the process of enslavement of African Americans. Proslavery colonists’ strategy to get support and justify making Africans slaves was by stating that they were of a different race, inferior, and conceptualizes that they were built for slavery (Smedley 1). In addition to this, proslavery colonists used race to enforce social separation, endogenous mating, and unequal social status (Smedley 2). Although slavery has ended, the alleged form of social identity, race, has since begotten racism which takes many forms and helps determine who has political power, privileges, and wealth.
In today’s society, racism plays a fundamental role in multiple aspects throughout many people’s lives. These aspects can include getting a job, getting into college, fairness in the legal system, and many more. Racism is the belief that one certain race is superior to another race such as European American people thinking they are superior to Asian Americans, although this idea is not supported by any empirical evidence. Social conflict theorists may study the racial groups in America. These theorists embrace the idea that the upper class controls the community while the lower class strives for the limited resources (Giddens et al 2014). This would clearly cause major problems in vital situations in an individual’s life through racial groups
This view of race during and after slavery led to the idea of racism. In both Spanish America and North America racism was fairly prominent, mainly focused on one’s skin color and hair. Most Africans in the Americas faced racism and oppression. In Spanish America racial and ethnic differences were used to divide and control the African Americans and Native Americas. In the United States even freed slaves were segregated in society. Slavery was used as a controlling form of segregation, with African Americans being separated in society by attitudes, behavior and sometimes even expectations of them. Slavery in its entirety ended up affecting Africa and African Americans for centuries.
It was a very eye opening movie that made me rethink slavery. The director does an incredible job of making the movie historically accurate and seems to show all angles of slavery. I feel like I learned the way that slaves were treated. They were seen as property, but not valuable property. Slaves were also judged on more than how strong they were. A smart slave could be seen as just as valuable as a strong slave. The last thing that I learned from this movie is that not all of the slave owners and their workers are cruel to the slaves. Some were respectful and kind to the slaves as long as the slaves worked hard and showed
The historical origins of these systems and ideologies must be examined to understand the cultural meanings attributed to specific races and ethnicities. Many western ideas about race and ethnicity come from specific moments in history marked by colonialism, immigration and other tides that shifted populations and demographics. With such changes and the intermixing of different races and ethnicities, dominant groups rose to power and exerted influence over others by occupying and controlling the landscape, language, culture, and rituals. In these varied historical examples, the white group attained dominance, while the subordinate groups (e.g. people of color) were relegated to the social, political and economic margins. This means that the
was very graphic with the details of what the slaves did to the white families to let the reader
In society today, race can be viewed in a variety of ways, depending on the manner in which one was raised, as well as many other contributing factors. These views are often very conflicting, and as a result, lead to disagreement and controversy amongst groups. Throughout history, many communities have seen such problems arise over time, thus having a profound impact that can change society in both positive and negative ways. Such a concept is a common method through which Charles W. Mills explain his theories and beliefs in his written work, The Racial Contract. In this particular text, Mills explores numerous concepts regarding race, how it is viewed by different people, and the sense of hierarchy that has formed because of it. Nevertheless, when certain scholars think about and discuss race in society, they often take different approaches than those by Mills mentioned prior. HowevSimier, regardless of the different approaches that may be taken, often times a common idea can be found amongst them, which further ties in The Racial Contract. For example, the text “Racial Formation in the United States” by Michael Omi and Howard Winant, as well as “The Lincoln-Douglass Debates” can both be found to have a correlation regarding race within Mill’s work.
Social Stratification in the African American community has changed over the years. Social stratification is defined as a rigid subdivision of a society into a hierarchy of layers, differentiated on the basis of power, prestige, and wealth according to Webster’s dictionary. David Newman in Sociology Exploring the Architecture of Everyday Life describes stratification as a ranking system for groups of people that perpetuates unequal rewards and life chances in society. From slavery to the present, the African American community has been seen to have lower status compared to white people. Today, the stratification or hierarchy difference between whites and black are not really noticeable, but it is still present. However, during slavery, the difference in social stratification was noticeable. Whites dominated over the blacks and mulattoes (offspring of a white and black parent). The mulattoes were seen to have a higher stratification than an offspring of black ancestry. Because the mulattoes were related to the whites, they were able to obtain higher education and better occupations than blacks. For example, most slaves of a lighter skin tone worked in the houses and darker slaves worked in the fields. As the people of light skin tone had children, they were able to have advantages too. The advantages have led into the society of today. In this paper I will discuss how stratification has been affected in the African American community over time by skin tone to make mulattoes more privileged than dark skin blacks.
Racism can be defined as "any set of beliefs, which classifies humanity into distinct collectives, defined in terms of natural and/or cultural attributes, and ranks these attributes in a hierarchy of superiority and inferiority" (Blum 5). It can be directly linked to the past and still, centuries later, serves as a painful reminder that race continues to be one of the "sharpest and deepest divisions in American life" (Loewen 138). What were the causes of racism? How did it develop historically? In order to answer those complex questions, I plan to examine the conditions of America's history from colonialism to present day society. It was these conditions of America's past that promoted the development of racist practices and ideas that continue to be embraced by many to this day.
Racism, it is defined as the belief that all members of each race possess characteristics, abilities, or qualities specific to that race, especially so as to distinguish it as inferior or superior to another race or races (Oxford Dictionary, n.d.). In layman’s term, it is an idea wherein one group treats another in a negative way leading to the outcasting of one form to another. One of the major basis of racism is the physical appearance of a person that trends to be a discrimination in the society. Not only the physical aspects are being judged but also the culture, tradition and practices are been after for. In racism, it is always viewed as the barrier between the black and white in terms of who is being more civilized. The perception of the majority is that if you are black, you are in a low level but if you are white then you are of higher rank than that of the other (Fredrickson, 1934). Racism in the U.S. Foreign Policy is evident; supposedly it aims to serve and create a bridge between different races of international community for democratic, secure, and thriving world. The concept of racism is said to originate during the past 500 – 1000 years. It started when the Non-Westerners were dominated by the Western powers that had bigger impact on history; an example would be the slavery started by the Westerners in which Africans were enslaved. The root cause was the racist belief that Black Africans were less fully humans than the white Europeans and their descendants. Racism has existed throughout human history up to this date. It was able to influence wars, slavery, and the division and formation of different nations.