The first step is for the teacher to select multiple copies of graded leveled books. The teacher then uses these books based on the students’ instructional needs and interests. According to Reutzel and Cooter, graded leveled books are typically categorized to include four levels of children’s reading development: early emergent, emergent, early fluency, and fluency (Avalos, Plasencia, Chavez, & Rascon, 2007, 318). Syntax and organization of language in the leveled books should match most speech of young children. The text should provide a reasonable challenge and an opportuni... ... middle of paper ... ... “high success” instructional setting that encourages strategy use in successful text (Schilb, 2011).
Abstract Learning to read in the content areas is a critically important skill that students must be taught. Educators must teach students the specific skills and strategies necessary so that they are able to read, write, comprehend, and critique information from many different sources. If American students are going to be successful, literate individuals who are able to compete in our global society, educators must find the initiative to have students learn specific reading strategies that will help them to understand and comprehend content area material. Reading in the Content Areas in the Elementary Grades Most people would agree that learning to read is a stepping stone to further educational pursuits for elementary school students. Unfortunately, reading proficiency in the United States of America by adolescent students indicates that there may actually be a problem of epidemic proportions in this nation.
In Carr (1991), the author illustrates reading comprehension strategies to benefit students with LD. Putting these strategies together, an effective reading intervention can be formulated that can help the learning disabled children. Teaching reading skill to students with LD may appear to be a difficult task. If these students' varying needs and the learning conditions of a crowded public school convene, then we can observe them left behind in the integrated classrooms. To tackle this issue, reading interventions should be prepared for students with LD as for them to have equal learning opportunities.
Alexander and Fox (2008) explained that processing and reading skills can “be systematically practiced and reinforced until the behavior is skillfully executed” (pp. 14). I think that there are many processing and reading skills that can be taught like this. There are many evidence-based practices like System of Least Prompts and Constant Time Delay that can teach students how to read, because their teacher is modeling, prompting, and reinforcing them as they make progress. The behaviorist theory has many ideas that I will use in my class, because I believe that children with disabilities do better when the material is modeled, when they are prompted from least to greatest, and when they are reinforced.
As a future elementary school teacher, I would like to teach my students how to respect and understand people who come from different backgrounds, cultures, ethnicities, and people with special needs. Children need to be made aware of differences in people that way they can become more tolerant and understanding. Over the past semester we have learned about a lot of different philosophers that all have different ideas relating to teaching children and people in general. Matthew Lipman is the founder of Philosophy for Children, a program many teachers have implemented into their classrooms that teaches children critical thinking and reasoning skills. Critical thinking and reasoning skills are important tools that children must learn.
It is the educator’s responsibility to fine-tune instructional needs so that classroom, small group, and one-to-one teaching occur when and for whom they are needed in a timely way and with the high quality every child deserves (Fountas & Pinnell, 2009). Each child enters a classroom with varying needs; differentiating guided reading lessons based on the results of running records will help meet the individual needs of each child. Kelly M. Anderson (2007) states, teachers who differentiate believe each child is unique, with differing learning styles and preferences. Teachers can differentiate based on students’ readiness by varying the level of difficulty of the material covered in class. Guided reading offers the opportunity to vary the children’s reading based on their reading level.
Every teacher has used diverse methods to instruct their students at one time or another; they have allowed extra time to complete work, given additional assignments for extra credit, or have simplified assessments for those students that struggle. When teachers do these things to help students they are already implementing some forms of differentiated instruction. Differentiating instruction gives the teacher a diversified and structured method by introducing a set of strategies that will help meet the needs of his/her students according to their diverse levels of learning (Levy, 2008). What is the difference between direct instruction and differentiated instruction? According to Lowe and Belcher, (2012) in the article Direct Instruction and Music... ... middle of paper ... ...n, T. (2002, January 1).
There are many methods of teaching for educators to use to fit the specific needs of their students. Children and adults with autism spectrum disorders can still be taught effective writing skills through understanding and cooperation of teachers, proven methods of teaching and continuous support. Informing teachers of the areas that students with autism spectrum disorder struggle in will better help them understand... ... middle of paper ... .... 43-197. Print. Luiselli, James K. "Verbal Language and Communication."
Even though, second language learners have those instilled variables, it is imperative for the teachers to guide learning and set the conditions of learning. Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment: Issues, Evidence, and Implications for Clinical Actions In the article, Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment: Issues, Evidence, and Implications for Clinical Actions, Kohner (2010) indicate numerous school districts that have implemented bilingual programs to help the English Language Learners. Dual language programs enhance student outcomes and close the achievement gap of Second Language Learners (Coyoca and Lee, 2009... ... middle of paper ... ... learners enjoy each others’ culture and life experiences as they relate to subject-areas (Nemeth, 2009). Conclusion The population of the United States increased with school age children speaking English as their second language. Strong community leaders and school districts are needed to ensure English language learners attend effective programs that teach them English and push them to graduate successfully (Buysse, Castro, and Peisner-Feinberg, 2010).
23 Mar. 2014. Ying Guo, Laura M. Justice, Joan N. Kaderavek, Anita McGinty. “The Literacy Environment of Preschool Classrooms: Contributions of Children’s Emergent Literacy Growth.” Journal of Research in Reading 35.3 (2012): 308-327. Academic Search Complete.