Chemistry is vitally important in our understanding physiology. The molecule of my choice for this final exam is Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are originated as the outcome of photosynthesis, the condensation of carbon dioxide that requires light energy and chlorophyll pigment. Carbohydrates are a huge source of something called metabolic energy, which can be found in plants which help feed our animals. Carbohydrates are found in sugars and starches but they have another purpose which is called cellulose which helps transport the compound ATP.
The catabolic role the cycle plays involves the degradation of products and reactants involved in the cycle to produce ATP. This function appears to be the salient function of the cycle. The citric acid cycle is the final pathway for the oxidation of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins due to the use in amino acids metabolism (Cox M.M et al.,2017). Acetyl CoA has an amphibolic role. It fulfils its catabolic role by entering the citric acid cycle for the breakdown of amino acids.
Cellular respiration is the ability of a cell in an organism to metabolize chemicals in the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the main energy molecule of the cell. There are two forms of cellular respiration. Chemotrophic respiration, which is used by animals and phototrophic respiration (a.k.a. photosynthesis) used by plants and fungi. Chemotrophic respiration requires oxygen to efficiently make ATP and gives off carbon dioxide as a waste product.
Carbon dioxide is then formed into sugar (glucose). The process of photosynthesis incorporates the carbon atoms from carbon dioxide into sugars. Animals attain carbon by feeding on plants and other animals. Animals eat the plants and use the carbon to build their own tissues. The animals get rid of the carbon dioxide in a process called respiration in which an organism supplies its tissues and cells with the oxygen and relieves the tissues and cells of carbon dioxide.
Cellular respiration is the chemical process that generates energy by breaking down food molecules when oxygen is present (Prentice Hall). The chemical equation of cellular respiration is 6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy, meaning the reactants of cellular respiration are oxygen and glucose while the products are carbon dioxide, water, and energy (Gregory). Cellular respiration is crucial to life because it provides all cellular processes with the energy needed in order to function. This process involves glycolysis, the Krebs Cycle, and the electron transport chain (Dr. Fankhauser). Glycolysis, which occurs in the cytosol of the cell, is the anaerobic catabolism of glucose that leads to the release of energy and the production of two molecules of pyruvic acid (Gregory).
Fermentation is when bacteria or other microorganisms chemically breakdown a substance while giving off heat. Fermentation is used by making many food products, an drink products such as beer, and also fuel. Fermentation and Cellular Respiration are alike in many ways such as organisms make energy by breaking down glucose into energy. They are different because Fermentation makes ATP, while chemical respiration using nutrients to create energy and turns it into adenosine triphosphate. (Carter J.S.
Proteins are an essential to food as they contribute greatly to the physical properties of food through their ability to build or stabilize fibrillar structures, foams, emulsions, and gels (Belitz and others 2004). Additionally, they are the precursors for aroma and color compounds that are formed during enzymatic or thermal reactions during production, process or storage. Damodaran (1996) states that food proteins can be defined for practical purposes, as those proteins that are easily digestible, are non-toxic, abundantly available, functionally usable in food products, and are nutritionally adequate. As the world population increases and the need to provide inexpensive, but functional food proteins continue to grow, the food industry must look toward non-traditional sources of protein. By understanding the functional, chemical and physical properties of food proteins, the industry can be successful in finding ways to provide protein to the world population.
Photosynthesis is a biochemical process in which plant, algae, and some bacteria harness the energy of light to produce food. Nearly all living things depend on energy produced from photosynthesis for their nourishment, making it vital to life on Earth. It is also responsible for producing the oxygen that makes up a large portion of the Earth¡¦s atmosphere. Factors that affect photosynthesis are light intensity and wave length, carbon dioxide concentration, and temperature. Plants are autotrophs that mean they are able to synthesize food directly from inorganic compounds, instead of relying on other organisms.
This carbon dioxide is exhaled by the organism into the atmosphere and is the necessary component needed to begin photosynthesis in autotrophs. When carbon is chemically removed from the citric acid, some energy is generated in the form of NAD+ and FAD. NAD+ and FAD combine with hydrogen and electrons from each pyruvate transforming them into NADH and FADH2. Each 3-carbon pyruvate molecule yields three NADH and one FADH2 per cycle. Within one cycle each glucose molecule can produce a total of six NADH and two
Carbohydrates, or carbs, are used to spare the use of protein in the body and use it as energy. Carbs can be found in many foods, such as grains, fruits and milk products. "After carbohydrate is eaten, it is broken down into smaller units of sugar (including glucose, fructose and galactose) in the stomach and small intestine (Iowa State University Extension and Outreach, n.d.)." The roles in in animals it to provide energy for muscles, fuel for the nervous system and enable fat metabolism. Carbs consist of many carbons and hydrogen linked together by glycosidic bonds Plants produce all kinds of carbohydrates that each perform different tasks.