In this lab had to use acid- base extraction process. Since isopentyl acetate is soluble in diethyl ether, but acetic acid is soluble in both solvents. Therefore, a simple extraction procedure would remove only some of the acetic acid from isopentyl acetate, but it would not completely separate the two compounds. An acid-base extraction improves on the simple two-solvent extraction scheme by using acid-base reactions to change acetic acid into another compound with different solubility behavior. Hence, we convert acetic acid into, sodium acetate, and obtain a compound that is soluble in water, but not in diethyl ether.
The last part of this lab takes an unknown substance and by the four tests, determine what the substance is. BENEDICT'S TEST Introduction: Monosaccharides and disaccharides can be detected because of their free aldehyde groups, thus, testing positive for the Benedict's test. Such sugars act as a reducing agent, and is called a reducing sugar. By mixing the sugar solution with the Benedict's solution and adding heat, an oxidation- reduction reaction will occur. The sugar will oxidize, gaining an oxygen, and the Benedict's reagent will reduce, loosing an oxygen.
Background theory: Benedict's solution is an aqueous solution of Copper (II) Sulphate, Sodium carbonate and Sodium citrate. It is an alkaline solution used to test for the presence of aldehyde groups (RCHO). The reducing sugar (Glucose) reduces the copper (II) Sulphate to Copper (I) oxide. The colour of the precipitate varies dependent on the strength of the reducing sugar present. The colour can vary from blue to red-brick: indicating a high concentration of sugar.
The tube with the unknown turned red which is a positive indicator that the unknown is able to catabolize tryptophan. Two more tubes of broth were inoculated and cultured to determine if the unknown organism can ferment glucose through a mixed acid pathway or the butylene glycol pathway. In one tube the methyl-red reagent was added and in the other Barritt’s reagent B was added to the tube and then Barritt’s reagent A was added second. The first test is the methyl-red test and is looking for acid production the fi... ... middle of paper ... ...e, were better to use to find virulent strains of E coli in Europe than other probes. Works Cited Giammanaco, A., Maggio, M., Giammanaco, G., Morelli, R., Minelli, F., Scheutz, F., et al.
Iron salts react with phenols to form a complex ion that has a purple color, therefore iron (III) chloride can be used to determine if your aspirin sample contains residual salicylic acid. The second test uses melting point to evaluate the purity of your aspirin product. You will measure the melting point of pure acetylsalicylic acid (135°C) as a comparison to your product. The melting point of a pure aspirin sample should be within 1°C of its known melting point. A compound that contains impurities will tend to melt over a range of temperatures and at temperatures lower than the fixed mp for the pure compound.
Metabolism occurs in animals and humans after the ingestion of organic plant or animal foods. In the cells a series of complex reactions occurs with oxygen to convert. For example glucose sugar into the products of carbon dioxide and water and energy. This reaction is also carried out by bacteria in the decomposition/decay of waste maters on land and in water. Combustion occurs when any organic material is reacted or burned in the presence of oxygen to give off the products of carbon dioxide and water and energy.
So I started up with an alkaline solution that was not metabolically changed by the bacteria into an acid solution. Gas can also be produced as a positive result. Another test that was done was the triple sugar iron test. A loop full of the bacteria was transferred from the TSA plate to the broth; a spiral streak was carefully done to prevent poking the broth. A positive result changes to a dark color and a negative test did not.
The focus of the research was to determine which test solution would release the Carbon Dioxide by-product the quickest, by the addition of the yeast solution. The best results came from galactose, which produced .170 ml/minute of carbon dioxide. Followed by glucose, this produced .014 ml/minute; finally, sucrose which produced .012ml/minute of Carbon Dioxide. The test solutions water and glycine did not release Carbon Dioxide because they were not a food source for yeast. The results suggest that sugars are very good energy sources for a cell where amino acid, Glycine, is not.
The aqueous layer was on the bottom because it was denser than the organic layer. The aqueous layer contained the benzoic acid and the organic layer contained the naphthalene. The drying step was partially successful in the experiment because it rid the organic layer of excess water. In the end, the melting point range of the naphthalene was 55-62 °C, unlike the actual determined melting point of 80.2 °C. There is a possibility that less than needed sodium sulfate had been added to the organic layer mixture because the melting point could have been negatively affected by excess water not absorbed by the sodium sulfate.
They differ with other biological micro molecules in their complexity, since they are much smaller than average micro molecule, tend to be more diverse and have the ability to conserve themselves for a long period of time even without a specific biological activity or role19. The importance of natural products relay on its variety of uses, since natural products are used in pharmaceutical industry, food production and pesticides3. The techniques commonly used to produce natural products are: Column chromatography, extraction and distillation. In this paper, the efficiency of the extraction method in synthesizing natural products will be evaluated. Extraction of natural products in an economic and environmentally-friendly way is of high importance to all industries involved.