School Psychology Review, 42(3), 298-316. Thompson, T. (2013). Autism Research and Services for Young Children: History, Progress and Challenges. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 26(2), 81-107.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a disability that can make developing major social, communication, ... ... middle of paper ... ...111/j.1460-9568.2005.04217.x Southwick, J. S., Bigler, E. D., Froehlich, A., DuBray, M. B., Alexander, A. L., Lange, N., & Lainhart, J. E. (2011). Memory functioning in children and adolescents with autism. Neuropsychology, 25(6), 702-710. doi:10.1037/a0024935 Williams, D. L., Goldstein, G., & Minshew, N. J. (2005). Impaired memory for faces and social scenes in autism: clinical implications of memory dysfunction.
Autistic spectrum disorder is caused not only by environmental factors but also by genetic inheritability. This disorder can range from mild to severe and is shown in many different forms. Symptoms include speech impairment, disorganized language; sensory processing disorder which causes absent responses, sleep disorders, depression and anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder and many more. Diagnosing autism does not include medical test but instead a team of physiologists and physicians observe the child during an autism-specific behavior evaluations and in some cases genetic testing is needed. The exact cause of autism is still unknown although there are many factors that play a role in it for example mother’s weight, teratogens and genetics.
Outcomes of Play-based Home Support for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Social Behavior and Personality. 42(Suppl.) S65-S80. Sunita &Bliszta, J.L.
Jouranl of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 46(4), 409-419. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00371.x Silliman, E.r., Diehl, S.F., Bahr, R., Hnath-Chisolm, T., Zenko, C., & Friedman, S.A. (2003). A New Look at Perfomance on Theory-of-Mind Tasks by Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools, 34(3), 236-252. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Ral, S.M., & Gagie, B.
Hans Asperger suggests that, genetics contributes to the causes of Asperger syndrome, although no specific gene has been identified (Woodbury-Smith and Volkmar , 2009). The exact cause is still being investigated as further research is being done on the condition. However, current research reveals that, Asperger syndrome is caused by brain abnormalities. Through the use of brain imaging techniques, a number of scientists have indicated that, functional and structural differences in certain parts of the brains which leads to Asperger syndrome. According to McPartland and Klin, these defects in the brain are normally caused by the abnormal migration of embryonic cells du... ... middle of paper ... ...e ideal treatment for this disorder is through organizing interventions that will address the three core symptoms of the condition which are; difficulties in interaction, communication, and behavioral problems.
The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised: Independent Validation in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Springer, 37, 855–866. Rodier, P. M. (2000). The Early Origins of Autism. Scientific American, 56-63.
Even though labeled high-functioning autism, AS may cause the greatest disability in adolescence and young adults when it comes to developing social relationships. People with AS desire social interactions, however they lack the appropriate social skills (Barnhill, 2002) and, in turn, have trouble interacting with people (Travis, 2003). They do not have the ability to read social cues and will often display socially and emotionally inappropriate behaviors: lack of empathy, one-sided interactions, pedantic and repetitive speech, and intense absorption in certain subjects (Attwood, 1998). Non-verbal communications skills are also impaired. These may include: limited use of gestures, clumsy body language, limited facial gestures, inappropriate expression, and peculiar, stiff gaze (Attwood, 1998).
Leo Kanner is the first person to formally identified autism. In 1943, Kanner labeled autism as “autistic disturbance of affective contact”. Initially, there was a lot of confusion concerning Kanner’s description of autism because it was closely related to the characterization of other mental disorders (Blancher and Christensen 2011). In order to effectively study and understand the causes of disruption in the brain, researchers have done experiments to explore the differences between a normal brain and an autistic brain. Researchers have found that structural differences, such as size and composition, can have a significant impact on how the autistic brain processes information.
Autism is a behavioral syndrome usually presenting behavior abnormalities before the child is 30 months of age. These behavioral abnormalities include marked social deficits, specific language abnormalities and stereotyped, repetitive behaviors (Piven, 1990). Although the exact etiology of autism is not known it is now believed that it is a dysfunction of one or more unidentified brain systems and not the result of parental and environmental influences. Variations in symptomology and in prognosis among autistic persons depend on both the severity and the extent of the underlying brain dysfunction (Repin, 1991). Several studies have been conducted including neuroanatomic imaging, microscopic neuroanatomic observations and positron emission tomography in order to locate this dysfunction.