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Autism Spectrum Disorders

explanatory Essay
1845 words
1845 words
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Autism is a form of neurodevelopment disorder in the autism spectrum disorders. It is characterized by impaired development in social interactions and communication, both verbal and non-verbal. There is an observed lack of spontaneous acts of communication; both receptive and expressed, as well as speech impairments. A person diagnosed with Autism will also show a limited range of activities and interests, as well as forming and maintain peer relationships. The individuals will display limited interests, which are often very focused and repetitive. He or she is likely to be very routine oriented and may show behavioral symptoms such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, aggressiveness, and self-injurious behaviors.

There is no known single cause of autism. Researchers are investigating a number of possible theories including genetics, heredity, medical problems, problems during pregnancy or delivery, as well as environmental influences. It is widely accepted that it is caused by abnormalities in the brain structure or function. There is evidence from neuropathological studies that autism has its origins in abnormal brain development early in prenatal life which continues postnatally, showing acceleration in brain growth measured by head circumference (Zwaigenbaum, L., Bryson, S., Rogers, T., Roberts, W., Brian, J., & Szatmari, P., 2005). The disorder also seems to have a genetic basis, although researchers have yet to find the specific genes that link to the onset of autism. There could be a cluster of genes that have somehow interfered with normal brain development and function. Studies show that twins of children with autism were more likely to be autistic themselves than the regular population, demonstrating there is a heredity lin...

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..., Tager- Flusberg, H.,& Lainhart, J. E. (2006). Comorbid psychiatric disorders in children with autism: Interview development and rates of disorders. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 36(7), 849-861.

Orsmond, G. I., Krauss, M. W., & Seltzer, M. M. (2004). Peer relationships and social and recreational activities among adolescents and adults with autism. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 34(3), 245-256.

Seltzer, M. M., Shattuck, P., Abbeduto, L., & Greenberg, J. S. (2004). Trajectory of development in adolescents and adults with autism. Mental retardation and developmental disabilities research reviews, 10(4), 234-247.

Zwaigenbaum, L., Bryson, S., Rogers, T., Roberts, W., Brian, J., & Szatmari, P. (2005). Behavioral manifestations of autism in the first year of life. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 23(2), 143-152.

In this essay, the author

  • Explains that autism is a form of neurodevelopment disorder in the autism spectrum disorders, characterized by impaired development in social interactions and communication, as well as speech impairments.
  • Explains that there is no known single cause of autism. researchers are investigating a number of theories including genetics, heredity, medical problems, problems during pregnancy or delivery, and environmental influences.
  • Explains that environmental factors such as exposure to infectious disease, heavy metals, phthalates and phenols have been suspected of attributing to autism.
  • Explains that a child must meet several criteria listed in the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders to receive an autism diagnosis.
  • Explains that symptoms are usually noticed by parents and caregivers well before the age of three. retrospective reports have provided us with early signs or symptoms of children who later on were diagnosed with autism.
  • Explains that up to 50% of children later diagnose with autism will display a normal development or mild delays until about 2 years old, and then regress. they lose language, communication and/or social skills.
  • Explains that 75% of autistic children function at a retarded level (dsm iv-tr). impairments in social interactions can range from isolation to indifference, lack of eye contact, difficulties with reciprocal communication, inability to recognize and read non-verbal cues from other people.
  • Explains that children with autism display stereotyped patterns of behavior, interest or activities. they are preoccupied or focused on one task, or object, and are rigid regarding certain routines.
  • Explains that sensory atypicalities are the major symptoms of autistic children. some people with autism display extreme sensitivity, while others are under responsive to sensory stimulation.
  • Explains that 44% of children with autism had met the diagnostic criteria for specific phobia, fear of needles/shots and crowds, ocd, and adhd.
  • Explains that as children with autism become adolescents, they still face many of the same difficult challenges, such as the ability to form peer relationships.
  • Explains that there is no cure for autism, and it considered a life-long disorder. few individuals who were diagnosed with autism in childhood recover fully and achieve levels of functioning typical of their age peers.
  • Cites the american psychiatric association's diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders.
  • Explains landa, holman, and garrett-mayer's research on social and communication development in toddlers with early and later diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders.
  • Explains leyfer, folstein, bacalman, davis, n. o, dinh, e, morgan, j, tager- flusberg, h., and lainhart.
  • Summarizes orsmond, krauss, and seltzer's research on peer relationships and social and recreational activities among adolescents and adults with autism.
  • Explains seltzer, shattuck, abbeduto, and greenberg, j. s. (2004). trajectory of development in adolescents and adults with autism.
  • Explains zwaigenbaum, bryson, rogers, w., brian, j. and szatmari, p. behavioral manifestations of autism in the first year of life.
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