Thus, from a psychological perspective, Behaviorism is the theoretical construct in that focuses on facilitating or reinforcing a particular or expected a behavioral outcome. More specifically, the arena of Behaviorism Reinforcement Theory explains how behaviors
Although it seems as if sometimes it’s a natural thing to act a specific way, the environment we find ourselves in is what ultimately shapes and constraints us to act in a certain matter (“What is Personality,” 2009). The behaviorist perspective on personality seeks to develop explanations of behavior; behaviorist believe that personality develops as people interact with others in their environments. Thus, personality development is a complex process but there are many potential environmental influences that help to shape it (Moore, 2013). Behaviorism is a theory of personality that sees everything in terms of conditioning. The theory was founded by John B. Watson who believed that our responses to environmental stimuli shape our behavior.
When a desired stimulus-response pattern is reinforced (rewarded), the individual is conditioned to respond in a certain way, and learning takes place. Reinforcement is a vital element in Skinner's Stimulus-Response Theory. A reinforcer is anything that strengthens a desired response, such as verbal praise, or a good grade. Skinner's theory also covers negative reinforcers, and punishment that lead to the reduction of undesired responses. Further, attention is given to schedules of reinforcement used to establish and maintain behaviour.
Hence, behavioral theory main focus is the behavior of the individual. The theory focuses on the positive and negative reinforcement. While, cognitive theory focuses more on the reasoning and consequences, while seeking to change the way one thinks about the actions. Behavioral theory seeks to change the way you act in the situation which will change the situation altogether. The consequences in cognitive therapy are reinforcements in behavioral theory.
There is no doubt that approach-avoidance motivations are integral to successful adaptation and they have great importance on human functioning (Elliot, 2006). With the fundamental nature of approach and avoidance motivation, and its omnipresent entity in psychological functioning, approach avoidance distinction could be considered as the principle of human motivation studies (Berntson, Boysen & Cacioppo, 1993). The distinction between approach and avoidance motives and goals has suggestions for understanding behavior, health, and well-being (Gable, 2006). Psychologists have asserted that human motivation could be understood as based on
What is Applied Behavior Analysis? Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) uses the principles of behavior to shape, modify, or change behavior. Behavior analysis emphasis how learning takes place. Today’s ABA is heavily focused on the use of positive reinforcement and antecedent modifications to shape behavior, rather than using punishment (“time out”). When a behavior is followed by a reward of some type, the behavior is more likely to be repeated in the future.
Theoretical conceptual framework Conceptually, the three theories Stakeholders Theory, System Theories and Functionalist Theory of Attitudes, have a significant function that is directly relating to this study. Stakeholders Theory emphasized the need for the effort to identify the public and consider those publics need. Similarly, Systems theory also relates to the study in a sense that the theory emphasizes on the relationship and the structure of the organizations. Functionalist Theory of Attitudes is an approach that explains the motivation of the public to exhibit certain attitudes. The theory approach shows that we develop favorable attitudes toward activities that aid us or reward us and form a negative certain attitude toward the activities that do not benefits us.
Meaning that the environment can influence people’s beliefs towards certain behavior. Key features: Reciprocal determinism- the ongoing interaction of the person, behavior and the environment Behavioral Capability- knowledge and skill to perform a given behavior Expectation- Anticipated outcomes of a behavior Self- efficacy- confidences in one’s ability to either overcome barriers or give up Observational learning- Behavioral acquisition that occurs by watching the action and outcomes of other
Julian Rotter and Walter Mischel both theorized that cognitive aspects, more so than direct reinforcements, establish human reactions to environmental influences. Both psychologists propose that human expectations of impending events are the foremost factors in determining human performance. Recognized for his cognitive social learning model of personality, Mischel’s theory centered on the particular cognitive variables that intervene with the way new experiences influence a person (Feist & Feist, 2009). The assumption of Julian Rotter’s theory on cognitive social learning is that humans learn from watching others and in the course of observing others imitate different behaviors. The central premise behind his theory is that the probability of an individual to “engage in a set of functionally related behaviors in a given psychological situation is a joint function of (1) the person's expectancy that the behaviors will lead to a particular outcome in that situation and (2) the value of the outcome to the person in that situation” (Wallston, 1992, p. 184).
Bandura’s social cognitive theory (SCT) was the foundation for models of behaviour. Bandura (1977, 1986) proposed that behaviour is determined by incentives, expectations and social cognitions. He asserts that behaviour is determined by the expectancy that a behaviour may be hazardous (Situation outcome expectancies), that a behaviour can decrease the associated health-risk (Outcome expectancies) and that the individual is competent enough to undertake the behaviour (Self-efficacy expectancies). SCT also proposes that a behaviour is controlled by its