Classroom assessments help educators identify students strengths and weakness, monitor student learning and progress as well as plan and conduct instruction. Many question rather to use the more formal standardized testing or authentic learning strategies including the Multiple Intelligence (MI) theory. Classroom assessments can do more than measure learning. How educators access and communicate the results send a clear message to students about what is worth learning, how we expect them to perform as well as how it should be learned. Linking instruction and assessment is critical to effective learning.
Therefore, as teachers become the researchers through research action design, they must determine whether the problem they seek to address requires changes at the school or district level or their community level. By comparing and contrasting the two types of action research design, educators can get a better understandin... ... middle of paper ... ...individuals involved in the designs. Whereas participatory action research requires the collaboration of various individuals to bring change at the community level, practical research may work in teams primarily if the issue is one that revolves around the school and not particularly in the classroom (Creswell, 2008). The focus of the researcher influences that type of action research appropriate for addressing a problem, finding a solution and most ultimately addresses the research question and purpose of the study. Through a clear understanding of the characteristics shared and defining practical and participatory action research, researchers can make an informed decision as to the best design for their study.
Most ordinarily, information are utilized for errands, for example, annual and intermediate goals as a component of the school change process. Information might likewise be utilized to outwardly delineate goals and vision, persuade students and staff, and commend accomplishment and change. Schools use data information for instructional decisions, for example, distinguishing goals, grouping and individualizing direction, adjusting guideline to benchmarks, refining course offerings, recognizing low-performing students, and checking understudy progress. School structure, policy, and resource use may be informed by data. Schools have likewise utilized data for decisions identified with staff, for example, assessing team performance and deciding and refining topics for professional development.
High-stakes tests measure schools, district, and student’s success (Robbins & Alvy, 2009, pg. 7). NCLB has made schools look at better ways to teach students. Schools have turned to using research based teaching practices. Schools are now using data to guide instruction.
Action research is a research process that is reflective in nature and typically conducted in school settings. These types of research enables professionals in school settings to collaborate on the components of a study, and allows them to search for solutions to the common everyday challenges that educators experience in schools (Ferrance, 2000). Educators can use the process of reflection through action research to better understand their work and build professional knowledge as they strive for continuous improvement (Brown, 2002). Although action research has received some attention from school review boards regarding ethical concerns associated with policies and procedures when conducting these studies, these types of research allow teachers, school specialists and administrators to explore ways to enhance or improve academic instruction in an effort to improve student achievement (Nolen & Putten, 2007). As appose to looking at theories, action research enables the school professionals to address the areas of concerns that are important to them, and allow them to see how their influence can bring about changes (Ferrance, 2000).
It is important to prioritize the curriculum and how to monitor it and un... ... middle of paper ... ...er data collection instrument would be to introduce alternative instructional strategies to help improve instruction. These could be introduced at faculty meetings or in-service trainings and give teachers hands on practice on these strategies and collaborate with teachers in their department and others at the school. As these new instructional strategies are being applied to instruction, administrators will take a close look at the lesson plans teachers are submitting and work on improving them and aligning them with the curriculum and the instructional strategies. Lastly the final data collection instrument would be to analyze classroom, district and state assessments. It is vital to evaluate how students are performing on their assessments and make sure teachers are aligning their lessons with the curriculum and students are actually learning the content.
• There could also be changes in the time and staff resources. The need to evaluate curriculum arises because it is necessary for both teachers and students to determine the extent to which their current curricular program and its implementation have produced positive and curricularly suitable outcomes for students. To evaluate curricular effectiveness we must identify and describe the curriculum and its objectives first and then check its contents for accuracy, comprehensiveness, depth, timeliness, depth and quality. A curriculum can be evaluated by the results that it claims to achieve and the teachings that it inculcates in the students. You can look at the following factors while evaluating a curriculum: • Does the curriculum encourage students to use their own reasoning and thinking to find solutions to real-world problems in a more productive and realistic way?
In addition, assessments are developed by a wide array of groups and individuals, including teachers, district administrators, universities, private companies, state departments of education, and groups that include a combination of these individuals and institutions (“Assessment”, 2015). Assessment is about more than evaluations of learning at the end of teaching segments, such as traditional tests or papers. Research shows that assessment works best when it is ongoing in ways that help students and teachers gauge learning in progress. This ongoing, or formative, assessment provides feedback that allows students to address their shortcomings in a timely fashion. Best practice is that courses should include summative (at the ending of a learning segment) and formative (ongoing during a learning segment) assessments (“Assessment strategy”,
Conversely, students’ approaches to study influence the ways in which they perceive evaluation and assessment. When students participate in formative assessment, there is opportunity to give feedback to students. The provision of feedback is one of the primary functions of formative assessment. A further function of the formative assessment is to provide feedback to the mentors. Concerning these, Bloxham and Boyd (2007) argued that “for assessment to function in a formative way that supports students’ future learning, the findings have to adjust teaching”.
If student learning did not happen via one instructional method, the teacher must make the necessary accommodations to reteach the concept or skill. Next, it is not only used by teachers for feedback on instruction, but formative assessment is also used for providing timely, descriptive feedback to students and extends to allow for student self-assessment (Chappuis, J., Stiggins, Chappuis, S., & Arter, 2012; Popham, 2008). Formative assessment provides opportunity to provide specific feedback to students on where they are currently in their learning, and where they should be headed.