The father of quantitative analysis, Rene Descartes, thought that in order to know and understand something, you have to measure it (Kover, 2008). Quantitative research has two main types of sampling used, probabilistic and purposive. Probabilistic sampling is when there is equal chance of anyone within the studied population to be included. Purposive sampling is used when some benchmarks are used to replace the discrepancy among errors. The primary collection of data is from tests or standardized questionnaires, structured interviews, and closed-ended observational protocols. The secondary means for data collection includes official documents. In this study, the data is analyzed to test one or more expressed hypotheses. Descriptive and inferential analyses are the two types of data analysis used and advance from descriptive to inferential. The next step in the process is data interpretation, and the goal is to give meaning to the results in regards to the hypothesis the theory was derived from. Data interpretation techniques used are generalization, theory-driven, and interpretation of theory (Gelo, Braakmann, Benetka, 2008). The discussion should bring together findings and put them into context of the framework, guiding the study (Black, Gray, Airasain, Hector, Hopkins, Nenty, Ouyang, n.d.). The discussion should include an interpretation of the results; descriptions of themes, trends, and relationships; meanings of the results, and the limitations of the study. In the conclusion, one wants to end the study by providing a synopsis and final comments. It should include a summary of findings, recommendations, and future research (Black, Gray, Airasain, Hector, Hopkins, Nenty, Ouyang, n.d.). Deductive reasoning is used in studies... ... middle of paper ... ...& Hamilton, G. A. (2010). The long-term lived experience of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators. MEDSURG Nursing, 19(2), 113-119. Gelo, O., Braakmann, D., & Benetka, G. (2008). Quantitative and Qualitative Research: Beyond the Debate. Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 42(3), 266-290. doi:10.1007/s12124-008-9078-3 Kover, A. J. (2008). Qual vs quant ... again!. International Journal Of Advertising, 27(4), 663-665. Pipe, T. B., Kelly, A., LeBrun, G., Schmidt, D., Atherton, P., & Robinson, C. (2008). A prospective descriptive study exploring hope, spiritual well-being, and quality of life in hospitalized patients. MEDSURG Nursing, 17(4), 247-253. Shah, S. K., & Corley, K. G. (2006). Building Better Theory by Bridging the Quantitative–Qualitative Divide. Journal Of Management Studies, 43(8), 1821-1835. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6486.2006.00662.x
Different styles of research are employed in research to safeguard that the facts are acquired to permit examiners to find resolution to the principal queries for the study correctly, therefore, evading uncertainty ( ). Acquiring relevant proof encompasses stipulating the type of proof mandatory in answering the query. Methodological designs encompass logical complications; therefore, matters of sampling, information gathering methods, and queries are secondary to the type of method used in research. Strategies are often compared with quantitative and qualitative research methods. Research and collective studies are often observed as principal specimens of quantitative research and are evaluated compared to the flaws and strong point of numerical, examination, and quantitative research methods ( ).
Also, the title of the article states the research is a “population study” which is a focus of a quantitative research and a component of a quantitative method. Furthermore, the authors specified a clear defined research purpose which often requires statistical methods to test the hypotheses as well as to look for the cause and effects of the variables so that predictions can be
According to Merriam-Webster, research is defined as careful study done to report new knowledge on a topic. ("Research | Definition of research by merriam-webster," n.d.). Success in the field of Guidance and Counseling is dependent on accurate information. Counselors well versed in pertinent research make a strong impact on the clients. Counselors using research as a guide for intervention have a better understanding of the clients why and also the how to serve the client best.
Within scientific research there is always a strong debate between those that prefer quantitative methods and those who prefer qualitative ones. proponents of quantitative methods have built the standards in experimental research and in researches performed on a large number of subjects and which use sampling criteria and statistical analysis techniques. On the other side, the qualitative method uses procedures of qualitative nature both at the level of collecting the data as well as the level of analyzing them (Tagliapietra, Trifan, Raineri & Lis, 2009). The gathering data procedures include: interviews, group discussions, observations, journals; while the analysis procedures include coding, categorizations and systematic confrontation between the categories and their dimensions. Such research is often defined as an explorative one, opposite to “classical” scientific research aiming to confirm / disconfirm initial hypothesis. Among the qualitative methods used in the scientific research we can list: Focus Group, Speech Analysis, Conversation Analysis, Grounded Theory and Phenomenological Interpretative Analysis (Tagliapietra, Trifan, Raineri & Lis, 2009).
The goal of qualitative research is explaining patterns and outcomes in individual cases whereas that of quantitative looks for common patterns that lead to the outcomes in large-N cases (Mahoney and Goertz, 2006). This means that qualitative research may select smaller cases to effectively explain the phenomenon being observed. As a result, the conclusions drawn from the qualitative research may apply to the cases being studied or may only provide partial explanation to what happened in some other cases. In contrast, quantitative analysis would generate broader arguments that could be commonly found in a wide variety of cases selected randomly but its arguments may not necessarily or satisfactorily explain every case in the study. Outliers and some deviations among cases may occur and by the time it happens, the quantitative model would either take out these outcasts and deviations or may add another variable to control their impact on the dependent variable. Such being the case, some patterns may be overlooked and the conclusions drawn from the quantitative analysis may not fully explain the situation for the study. Therefore, in order to generate more inclusive conclusion, these overlooks may be worth to be studied in qualitative analyses. In this way, the limitations between qualitative and quantitative analyses seem to be resolved by using both traditions
Therefore, in a quantitative study the theoretical framework is often discussed are the literate review (Coughlan, Cronin, & Ryan, 2007). In addition, the theory can be used as a conceptual model that is used as guide for the research study (Coughlan et al., 2007). Therefore, a quantitative research study contributes to theory by building on the theory through empirical observation. On the other hand, qualitative research contributes to theory by developing new theories (Ryan, Coughlan, & Cronin, 2007). As a result, majority of qualitative research does not test a theory compared to the quantitative research studies. Therefore, qualitative research is often known as grounded theory (Ryan et al., 2007). However, some qualitative research can use theories as a frame for the study. Finally, research contributes to theory by improving the efficiency and reducing errors (Wacker, 1998). Therefore, theory is improved and it enhances the knowledge in the topic area of interest. Overall, research is conducted built on a theory that provides an explanation of the phenomena (Stam, 2009). In the end, theory and research are closely linked together and without the use of a theoretical framework to build the research from it will be difficult to provide an understanding of the research results regarding the
Qualitative and quantitative methods allow researchers to investigate, explore and inquire the nature of the phenomenon being studied. It is important that the researcher develops a clear understanding of the problem and design a plan to investigate it (Cresswell, 1998, para. 1). There are a variety of research methods; nevertheless, it is important to consider which research method is appropriate for the study. Qualitative research focuses on human experiences while quantitative research relies on numbers, measurements, and testing. Nevertheless, qualitative and quantitative methods use similar approaches to conduct research and collect data. For example, observations and interviews are approaches used in both research designs; however, the approaches are used and viewed otherwise. This will be discussed later in the paper.
On the other hand, Quantitative research refers to “variance theory” where quantity describes the research in terms of statistical relationships between different variables (Maxwell, 2013). Quantitative research answers the questions “how much” or “how many?” Quantitative research is an objective, deductive process and is used to quantify attitudes, opinions, behaviors, and other defined variables with generalized results from a larger sample population. Much more structured than qualitative research, quantitative data collection methods include various forms of surveys, personal interviews and telephone interviews, polls, and systematic observations. Methods can be considered “cookie cutter” with a predetermined starting point and a fixed sequence of
Qualitative and Quantitative study designs both can be beneficial in research design. They both provide valuable options for researchers in the field. These techniques can either be used separately in a research study or they can be combined to achieve maximum information. This paper will define the terms qualitative and quantitative; describe the similarities and differences between each; discuss how qualitative and/or quantitative research designs or techniques could be used in the evaluation of my proposed research; and discuss why linking analysis to study design is important.
We believe it is clear that both qualitative and quantitative research have many benefits and many costs. In some situations the qualitative approach will be more appropriate; in other situations the quantitative approach will be more appropriate.
Pipe, T. B., Kelly, A., LeBrun, G., Schmidt, D., Atherton, P., & Robinson, C. (2008). A prospective descriptive study exploring hope, spiritual well-being, and quality of life in hospitalized patients. MEDSURG Nursing, 17(4), 247-253.
The human experience is this focus of qualitative research. Qualitative research focuses on the behaviors, perspectives, actions, and reactions of subjects (Criswell, 2015). Qualitative research is described in “crisis of legitimation, meaning that the methods are consistent with a philosophical underpinning of questions such as a teacher who believes in Skinner’s behaviorism is the best way to classroom manage and want to prove it or interviewing a student about their social media use and how it has impacted their appearance to peers (Newman and Benz, 1998).
Qualitative and quantitative researcher’s exhibited conflicting ways of approaching a research. Some researchers prefer qualitative over quantitative and vice-versa. Also, it is common for qualitative and quantitative to be used together in a research. But, both methods when carried out correctly provide good research. Plus, both methods have their own unique differences and characteristics. In this paper I will define three of these characteristics in a quantitative and qualitative research design and discuss and compare their differences. (Smith & Davis, 2010)