Accident Causation Theory

analytical Essay
2003 words
2003 words

Accidents is defined as an unplanned and undesired circumstances resulting in injuries, fatalities and loss or damage of property or assets(safety.ILO, 2011). Accidents are much deeper and beyond the older clichés, accounting to bad luck or fate, almighty’s work or simply being at wrong place at wrong time. But, in todays scientific world it is neither perceived as fate nor as deity’s work but a social problem resulting from a chain of undesired events. Preventing accidents is very arduous task without knowledge of accident phenomenon and the study in the field of accident phenomenon has been very diverse but a basic question has always been raised as why does accident occur? Can there be some common pattern to it? To unravel these mysteries and predict and prevent accidents several theories and model has been postulated in the past and recent times with each having some explanatory and predictive values.

Some of the major theories are:

• Domino theory

• Human factor theory

• Accident/incident theory

• Epidemiological theory

• Systems theory

• Energy release theory

• Behavior theory

• Swiss cheese theory

• Drug and accident causation

• Management failure and accident causation

(SafetyInstituteofAustralia, 2012)

Domino theory

Heinrich’s version of Domino theory was one of the earliest proposed Domino theory on accident causation model by W.H.Heinrich in 1931. He described accident as an multifactorial chain of discrete events and presented a series of dominoes and exhibit how series of dominoes topples simultaneously when one of them tumbles down. He proposed sequence of 5 factors that would prompt the next step of toppling the dominos lined up in a row (HW Heinrich, 1980). The sequence is 1.inju...

... middle of paper ... in acute care.

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Underwood, P., & Waterson, P. (2014). Systems thinking, the Swiss Cheese Model and accident analysis: A comparative systemic analysis of the Grayrigg train derailment using the ATSB, AcciMap and STAMP models. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 68, 75-94.

In this essay, the author

  • Defines accidents as unplanned and undesired circumstances resulting in injuries, fatalities, and loss or damage of property or assets.
  • Explains heinrich's version of domino theory on accident causation model, which described accident as a multifactorial chain of discrete events. heinrich proposed sequence of 5 factors that would prompt the next step of toppling
  • Explains that heinrich explained how inadmissible traits such as greed, carelessness can be passed along heredity or be acquired through social environment.
  • Explains that heinrich pointed to workers as second domino also deals with personality, as heinrich explained that inborn or obtained character flaws such as recklessness, inconsiderate, anger, ignorance contributed towards the initiation of an accident.
  • Describes heinrich's unsafe act and condition as a core of an accident and if prevented it is the easiest way to remedy.
  • Analyzes how heinrichs described the steps of accidents in simple and logical ways. the report derived for accident causation was easily understandable even for a layman.
  • Explains that the mechanism of domino theory was inferred by approximately all involved in an organization and establishing the theory and fixing it by removing one of the domino was an uncomplicated process.
  • Analyzes how blame culture proved to be a two-edge sword for those who lost their rights. the theory easily identifies someone who was at the near edge and resulted in an accident.
  • Explains james reason's accident causation model based on swiss cheese metaphor that suggests that there are holes in the defensive layers of a system as similar to cheese but are constantly moving and shifting their location.
  • Explains bird & germain's loss causation model.
  • Explains jamshidi's application of domino theory to justify and prevent accidents in construction sites.
  • Explains that reason’s accident causation model: application to adverse events in acute care.
  • Compares accimap, hfacs, and stamp in systems-based accident analysis methods.
  • Explains that systems thinking, the swiss cheese model and accident analysis: a comparative systemic analysis of the grayrigg train derailment using the atsb, accimap and stamp models.
  • Summarizes heinrich's theory, stating that accidents, not injury or property damage, should be a point of concern and investigation.
  • Explains that heinrinch's theory was the simplest and clearest way of defining the accident process, but it failed to consider the involvement of management and organization.
  • Explains that human error is a common cause of accidents, and that it is difficult to understand all aspects of the information process.
  • Explains why the swiss cheese model is recommended as framework for adverse events analysis as it focuses on latent condition and factors that clinician tried to do their job.
  • Opines that the swiss cheese model is unable to explain the nature of holes in cheese and their relationship. proactive safety techniques and methods are extremely valuable in anticipating, analyzing and controlling accidents.

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