Birth Defects And Its Effects On The Development Of The Fetus Essay

Birth Defects And Its Effects On The Development Of The Fetus Essay

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Veronica Moreno Professor: Jankowski, Ph.D.
Developmental psy- PSY441B Spring 2016
Pregnancy is a very difficult time in a women’s life, everything that is digested, breathed, and felt affects the fetus. Teratogens are factors that cause developmental problems of an embryo. These factors include stress; toxin such as drug and cigarette use, the health and even the age of the mother can have an impact on the development of the fetus. Teratogen can cause birth defect that may have continuous consequences on the child life. I am very passionate about this topic due to the alarming increase of birth defects and abnormalities that have been occurring during my generation. In America one in every thirty-three babies are born with a defect (Teratogens. (n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2016, from These defects include physical, emotional and behavioral problems. Abnormalities such as ADHD, autism, gastroschisis, cerebral calcifications, and many more have been rising at an alarming rate. This is due to environmental factors, hereditary factors, and behavioral factors. In the two scientific articles I reviewed there is a clear connection of these factors and the effect they have on the fetus during the developmental stage and the effect it will have on the child’s life.
In the first article, Zika Virus Infection in Pregnant Women in Rio De Janerio- preliminary report, it discussed the Zika virus also known as ZIKV. ZIKV was detected in Brazil in 2005 and quickly spread to many South American countries due to its vector, a mosquito named Aedes aegypti. The disease may cause microcephaly in pregnant women. This is a neurological condition, w...

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...ducated on how emotional and physical stress can affect their pregnancy. They can also be educated on the effects that drugs and other harmful ingredients can have on their baby. Women who are expecting need to be more aware of the risk they pose on their fetus and take more responsibility in protecting their child.

• Konijnenberg, C., Lund, I. O., & Melinder, A. (2015). Behavioural outcomes of four-year-old children prenatally exposed to methadone or buprenorphine: A test of three risk models. Early Child Development and Care, 185(10), 1641-1657. doi:10.1080/03004430.2015.1016506
• Teratogens. (n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2016, from
• Zika virus infection in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro. (2016). Current Medicine Research and Practice. doi:10.1016/j.cmrp.2016.03.003

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