In Graham Music’s book, Nurturing Natures: Attachment and Children's Emotional, Sociocultural, and Brain Development, Music explains to the reader how poverty, neglect and trauma can be associated with PTSD, posttraumatic stress disorder, and how PTSD can develop into long term psychiatric and even physical medical conditions. Neglect of a child can affect them later in life and affect their learning, social, mobile and regular everyday functions and activities. Music also shows the reader how early childhood experiences can impact attachment between mother and child. In addition, while neglect can occur at anytime during development, children are most vulnerable because of their reliance on adults in order to survive. He shows the reader that often neglected and traumatized children are hard to identify because they are fearful to come forward. From birth, children are dependent on parents for survival and safety. Infants need this attachment in order to survive. Basic needs like shelter and food are things in that all human beings need; but for infants and children, in particular, they cannot survive independently without parents and guidance. Furthermore, as children grow, the parent-child attachment is not just physical, but it is also psychological. Adults who care for children through unconditional love and acceptance, provide positive living environments and self confidence which helps the child grow independently into an adult. Failure in this child-parent relationship in the form of long term neglect or trauma can have consequences in a child’s development physically and psychologically. The parent-child relationship is critical to the physical and brain development of a child. In its most literal sense, ‘trauma’ means a... ... middle of paper ... ...o grow up in home where there is neglect, abuse and trauma often miss out on a normal development with attachment and trust. Without that attachment and trust, neglected children are at risk and vulnerable to suffer consequences and risk physically, emotionally, psychologically, educationally, interpersonally that can have a damaging effect on the child’s life and development and can develop into PTSD. However, under certain circumstances, given an opportunity to attach to healthy adults in a positive way, children can overcome even brutal childhoods and injuries. Lastly, it shows how an adult or parent who is willing to attach, trust, help and work with a child, can radically change the course of that child’s life by acting as an advisor, detecting and solving problems, and being there even in the middle of conflict and eventually helping the child succeed in life.
A secure base is how the caregiver responds to the child’s needs, whether positively or negatively. When the child grows up with a positive secure base he/she is able to move into the exploratory system (Stalker & Hazelton, 2008). At this stage, the child should feel confident in their base feeling secure to venture into the environment. Even further, there is a fear/wariness system involved in the attachment theory (Stalker & Hazelton, 2008). This system is how the child responds to situations when their secure base is around. Lastly, is the internal working model, which is how the child views the world in addition to their relationships (Stalker & Hazelton, 2008). Carol Stalker and Rosemary Hazelton (2008) believed that attachment theory is appropriate for all clients especially those who experience maltreatment. Attachment theory supports the idea that psychological problems or disruptions are in congruence with early caregiving relationships; and based on the primary caregivers’ rapport with the child; he or she will develop a positive or negative pattern of attachment that will be present through adulthood if not rehabilitated (Stalker & Hazelton, 2008). Therefore, the primary goal of the attachment theory is to provide the child with a secure base to appropriately attain a sense of security to pattern proper social and emotional interpersonal relationships into adulthood (Stalker & Hazelton,
“Although experience may affect human brain structure and function throughout the entire life span, evidence…..suggests that early experience may be particularly critical” (Rao et al., 2010). During the childhood years, adequate nurturance by parents has a large impact on optimal biological and psychological development. This includes neurological, social, emotional, and cognitive growth. Rao et al. (2010) broadly define nurturance as including “warmth, affection, and acceptance” (p. 1145). Like nurturance, many researchers have looked at the importance of similar issues such as attention, attachment, and bonding. Conversely, issues such as stressful environments and unstable relationships have been shown to have negative consequences on childhood development. The importance of this early childhood nurturance is evident in the story of Michel Oher as described in the movie The Blind Side. Due to his neglectful upbringing, Michael has many academic deficits including language problems as well as having limited social and stress management skills. However, when taken in by the Tuohy family Michael begins to thrive and flourish due to the encouraging attention he receives and the positive environment in which he now lives. Although Michael’s case is atypical, not every impoverished child gets a second chance, it does illustrate the effects that improper, and later adequate, nurturance has on a child and his or her development.
An infant’s initial contact with the world and their exploration of life is directly through the parent/ primary caregiver. As the child grows, learns, and develops, a certain attachment relationship forms between them and the principle adult present in this process. Moreover, this attachment holds huge implications concerning the child’s future relationships and social successes. Children trust that their parental figure will be there; as a result, children whom form proper attachments internalize an image of their world as stable, safe, and secure. These children will grow independent while at the same time maintaining a connection with their caregivers. (Day, 2006). However, when a child f...
Infant attachment is the first relationship a child experiences and is crucial to the child’s survival (BOOK). A mother’s response to her child will yield either a secure bond or insecurity with the infant. Parents who respond “more sensitively and responsively to the child’s distress” establish a secure bond faster than “parents of insecure children”. (Attachment and Emotion, page 475) The quality of the attachment has “profound implications for the child’s feelings of security and capacity to form trusting relationships” (Book). Simply stated, a positive early attachment will likely yield positive physical, socio-emotional, and cognitive development for the child. (BOOK)
Attachment, the product of nature and nurture, is critical to human development. Children learn about important aspects of their physical, emotional and social world through experience. The value of this experience is directly proportional to the quality of the attachment children are forming with their caregivers. Through the positive experience of emotional connectedness, children learn to build and maintain loving, trusting and secure relationships with others. If the caregivers are available to them, sensitive to their signals, consistently responsive to their needs, infants develop secure style of attachment. If the caregivers are indifferent or neglectful, inaccessible, unresponsive and unreliable, infants are prone to developing anxious, avoidant or disorganized attachment style (Pearce, 2009). Difficulties in forming childhood relationships significantly increase likelihood of interpersonal conflicts in adulthood. Anxiety disorder, PTSD, dissociative identify disorder, borderline, narcissistic personality disorder are dysfunctions that are linked to attachment insecurities. Interpersonal adult conflicts, such as divorce, family abuse, child neglect, sexual abuse, substance abuse are responses to emotional dysregulation caused by deep wounds in
A child that has been removed from the home has experienced one to four traumatic events in their life. “Trauma is defined as an experience that overwhelms a person’s ability to cope”. The type of traumatic event could be a death of a parent, domestic violence, poverty, physical, sexual or emotional abuse; neglect; the list goes on to cover many other area’s that could affect a child. A traumatic aspect of any person could lead them not to be able to regulate things normally. Children that has not experienced a traumatic event can calm their selves down, can observe and learn, have meaningful relationships with individuals and groups, trust others and make good choices that keep others safe and along with their selves. The children that have
1.John Bowlby, a trained child psychiatrist maybe as well be considered as ‘father’ of attachment due to the nature of his contributions towards attachment. Bowlby (1980) asserted that human beings have an innate psychobiological system to seek security for from the moment of birth, human surviva. According to him this system motivates the humans to seek proximity to the people who will protect them in times of danger or threat. These people whom Bowbly refered to as ‘attachment figures’ are usually the mothers of the babies, however some other primary caregivers might become attachment figures as well. When an infant perceives threat, s/he searches for security and availability responsiveness of the attachment figure makes the infant feel secure and develop a secure attachment relationship with the caregiver. In the event the infant fails to achieve security and responsiveness from the caregiver, they feel insecure and develop insecure attachment and learn to cope with stress in her/his own way by organizing her/his behaviors (attachment behaviors) to increase the availability and responsiveness of the caregiver when needed.
The child-parent relationship is expected to be protective, supportive and nurturing. A neglectful family fails to provide consistent and appropriate opportunities to guide the child’s development. Neglect is the most chronic form of all other forms of maltreatment and this might be the reason why it is so detrimental to successful adaptation. The next part of this essay will be the description and the discussion of an interview schedule (see appendix A) focused on children’s broad ideas and assumptions about neglect of children.
Child neglect can be categorized and described in many different ways, and it also can lead to many negative affects on a victim’s development over time. According to the authors of The Child in Mind neglect is an insidious form of abuse affecting children in a variety of way . . . . Its consequences can be severe and long term, depriving children of the opportunity to recognize their potential in all areas of social functioning, relationships, and educational achievement. (Barker and Hodes 51). Child neglect is something many people do not talk about. It is a situation that can be the root cause of adverse social, mental and emotional developmental issue.
The attachment theory is a psychological theory that centers on the relationships and connections between humans, especially among a parent and child (Schwartz, 2015). Principally, attachment is dependent on a child’s ability to develop trust in their parents because the parents provide nourishment and loving care. This theory was first developed by John Bowlby and Mary Salter Ainsworth (Zir, 2015). Bowlby had a developing interest in understanding the connection between maternal loss or denial and personality development later on (Zir, 2015). Bowlby hypothesized that the earliest relationships formed between children and their caregivers ultimately impacted them for the rest of their life. He also proposed that attachment operates as a way to keep the child close to the mother, which greatly improves the child’s chance of surviving (Schwartz, 2015). Earlier behavioral theories of attachment implied that attachment was a developed process, but Bowlby and Ainsworth proposed that children are born with an instinctive desire to form a relationship with their parents. It has been noted that children who sustained a close proximity to a caregiver were more likely to receive consolation and
Attachment theory is the idea that a child needs to form a close relationship with at least one primary caregiver. The theory proved that attachment is necessary to ensure successful social and emotional development in an infant. It is critical for this to occur in the child’s early infant years. However, failed to prove that this nurturing can only be given by a mother (Birns, 1999, p. 13). Many aspects of this theory grew out of psychoanalyst, John Bowlby’s research. There are several other factors that needed to be taken into account before the social worker reached a conclusion; such as issues surrounding poverty, social class and temperament. These factors, as well as an explanation of insecure attachment will be further explored in this paper.
In the field of Psychology there has been a long-standing debate on the topic of nature vs. nurture. Is it the environment that plays a part in what the child becomes or just simply how the child is raised that truly effects the child’s development and over all outcome as a person? Many can agree that it is not just one or the other but a combination of both nature and nurture. With that being said, when a child is maltreated, specifically neglected, not only is the child not being properly nurtured but also their environment is not conducive to a healthy and beneficial childhood. In the case study presented within this paper, 10-year-old Mya Jones experiences neglect from her drug addict/dealing parents and is suffering from depression, lack of nutrition, and is in special education classes. Her story will help bring to light the trauma experienced by neglected children as well as help analyze ways in which to help those children. Child neglect is a form of abuse and trauma that has all encompassing effects. Not only does it do physical harm to a child but as well as affects their emotional, mental, and educational development.
It is very interesting to know that attachment and the quality of care that infants receive during their first years of life is essential, for a good mental and health outcome. Infants need affection, and support from their parents. Love and attachment towards an infant will make them feel loved, lovable, and secured, also this connection will make a secure attachment between the infant and the caregiver. Infants that are secure attached to their parents will have more confidence in themselves, will be more socially skilled, competent, and empathetic, unlike children who were insecurely attached as infants. Insecure attachment has been linked to different disease like depression, anxiety, aggression and physical disease outcomes. Parents should
The family environment is an important safeguard in developing a healthy young child (Gibb, 2007). The connection between the parent and child are closely related (Glaser, 2002). When the parents are able to provide a safe and loving environment, children learn to trust the world and trust themselves. But when parents struggle to handle stress, then it leads to psychological abuse due to many different reasons. Studies show that emotional abuse produce pain to child’s growth throughout his adulthood life. From long term studies demonstrated that the child who is going through emotional abuse and maltreatment generates problem with developmental growth (Glaser, 2002). Evidence also showed that childhood emotional abuse may exhibit a specific
As soon as a baby is born it begins to take in sensory experiences from the environment in which it is put in. Its environment will also have a powerful influence on its behaviour as it grows up. Experiences through environment are as important as genetics, as they also can have an influence on a person’s psychological development. Genetics decides how the brain is pre-wired but experience through environment will shape how the brain grows and develops. I will focus on the home environment in this essay and I will discuss the negative effects this environment may have on the child and how it shapes him/her psychologically. I will first talk about how children can be affected psychologically when exposed to an environment of domestic abuse and inter-parental conflict. I will then discuss the negative impact that divorce and the changing of family structure may have on the psychological development of the child, if the child is exposed to it in his/her environment.