26(2) pp.241-274. Paltrow, L. (1999). Punishment and Prejudice: judging drug-using pregnant women. Retrieved from http://www.advocatesforpregnantwomen.org/articles/ruddick.htm Taillac, C., Goler, N., Armstrong, M.A., Haley, K. & Osejo, V. (2007). Early Start: An Integrated Model of Substance Abuse Intervention for Pregnant Women.
The prosecution of a pregnant heroine user in the State of California with a felony child endangerment charge was one of the first of such prosecutions in 1977 (Stone-Manista, 2009, pp.823-856). This was the catalyst for the often biased punishment of pregnant drug addicts under the scope of the law. It is this vein of prosecution that struck ... ... middle of paper ... ...ses, 29(2), 231-244. doi:10.1080/10550881003684830 Harris, L. H., & Paltrow, L. (2003). The Status of Pregnant Women and Fetuses in US Criminal Law. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 289(13), 1697.
Characteristics of mothers who have children with fetal alcohol syndrome or some characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome. J Am Board Fam Med 16;4:296-303. Pearson, R. R., Heron, J. J., Melotti, R. R., Joinson, C. C., & Evans, J. J. (2012). The impact of alcohol use during pregnancy on maternal responses after birth.
Scientists are just beginning to explore how various drugs may affect the development of physical coordination, language, and emotional interactions. NIDA, through its clinical, epidemiological, and basic research programs, is increasing knowledge of immediate and long-term effects of drug use during pregnancy. NIDA grantees and others are designing and evaluating therapeutic programs to help mothers and their children overcome the harm caused by drugs. Scope of the Problem Evidence of increasing drug use among pregnant women comes from many parts of the country. NIDA estimates that of the women of childbearing age (15 to 44 years), 15 percent are current subs... ... middle of paper ... ...that cocaine-addicted women were twice as likely to suffer premature separation of the placenta as women dependent on other drugs and four times as likely as drug-free women to experience this complication.
The actual figures may be higher. '(Poisoned in the womb, p.53) The baby can be born with a lot of different kinds of birth defects. Women, who drink very heavily during their pregnancy, have babies that are born with Fetus Alcohol Syndrome. Drinking alcohol can lead to the baby's slow brain development, mental retardation, face deformities, and even death. 'Premature birth was associated with alcohol consumption during pregnancy.
The environment around the mother provides many of these outside factors affecting the baby’s growth. But the main link to teratogens during the gestation period is most likely the mother. Daniel S. Messinger and the National Institute on Drug Abuse found that 2.8% of pregnant women admitted to using illicit drugs during their pregnancy (1996). Through illicit drug use, tobacco use and alcohol use, the mother disrupts her baby’s growth with possibly permanent damage. One illicit drug that has gone through extensive research is cocaine.
A growing issue that continues to go on today is the drug and alcohol abuse by pregnant women. This has become a growing issue due to the fact that pregnancy is starting at a much younger age. Women tend to become pregnant around the age of 15 to 44 (“Birth Data”). In young women among the ages of 18 to 24, the alcohol and tobacco rates were 25.5 percent and 15.5 percent, respectively (Chen). As of 2001, about 12 percent of all pregnant women admitted to consuming alcohol during their pregnancy (Burd).