The Anatomy and Physiology of Respiratory System and the Diagnosis of Asthma

The Anatomy and Physiology of Respiratory System and the Diagnosis of Asthma

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Respiration consists mainly of two processes.Respiration Internal or cellular respiration is the process by which glucose or other small molecules are oxidized to produce energy: this requires oxygen and generates carbon dioxide. External respiration (breathing) involves simply the stage of taking oxygen from the air and returning carbon dioxide to it. “Anatomy and Functions of Respiratory System and its Components” The respiratory tract, where external respiration occurs, starts at the nose and mouth. The trachea (windpipe) extends from the neck into the thorax, where it divides into right and left main bronchi, which enter the right and left lungs, breaking up as they do so into smaller bronchi and bronchioles and ending in small air sacs or alveoli, where gaseous exchange occurs.The lungs are divided first into right and left, the left being smaller to accommodate the heart, then into lobes (three on the right, two on the left) supplied by lobar bronchi. Bronchi, pulmonary arteries and veins (which supply deoxygenated blood and remove oxygenated blood), bronchial arteries and veins (which supply oxygenated blood to the substance of the lung itself) and lymphatics all enter and leave the lung by its root (or hilum). Lymph nodes blackened by soot particles can often be seen here and the substance of the lung itself may be blackened by soot in city dwellers or heavy smokers. Each lobe of the lung is further divided into a pyramidal bronchopulmonary segments. Bronchopulmonary segments have the apex of the pyramid in the hilum whence they receive a tertiary bronchus, and appropriate blood vessels Gaseous exchange relies on simple diffusion. In order to provide sufficient oxygen and to get rid of sufficient car...


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... that a physician may perform when diagnosing asthma include: Chest X-rays Skin allergy tests Serum total IGE levels Nasal examinations Diagnosis in Infants: Physicians depend on parents to be observant and take notes. However, research has shown that starting asthma medications immediately, and treating wheezing, may help with diagnosis and meanwhile, help the child. References Asthma’ the Introductory material excerpted from book: ‘Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment, Ed 37, Pg: 256-257 Some procedures of Diagnosis adapted from ‘ Diagnosis of Asthma’ website accessed on 20/05/2003 www.clearbreathing.com/disease/asthma_diagnosis.asp Respiratory system material gathered from: Introductory Anatomy: Respiratory System Dr D.R.Johnson, Center for Human Biology, retrieved on 20/05/2003, from: http://www.leeds.ac.uk/chb/lectures/anatomy7.html

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