It is also a wide-ranging name for additional correlated diseases, such as, chronic bronchitis and emphysema (Olendorf, 1999). Background COPD is defined as difficulty breathing caused by irreversible damage to the lungs (Olendorf, 1999). The harm that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease causes to the lungs cannot be reversed (Mayo, 2010). Chronic bronchitis is a type of COPD that inflames the bronchial tubes; which are tubes that transport air to the lungs (Essig, 2008). This produces numerous amounts of mucus and causes excess coughing (Essig, 2008).
If possible, lateral chest images should also be performed. A CT scan of the lungs can also be helpful to detect viral pneumonia and is “frequently appropriate for cases with normal, equivocal, or nonspecific radiographic findings.” (Amanullah) Some physicians also perform an ultrasound of the chest if they believe there is fluid around the lungs. After treatment is administered, the doctor may order a follow up chest x-ray to be sure the pneumonia is clearing. (Mayo Clinic Staff; Test and Diagnosis) Many tests by a Respiratory Care Therapist are performed. They may do a Pulse Oximetry test to measure the oxygen levels in your blood.
Pulmonary Diseases Any disorder or disease that occurs in the lungs or causes the lungs not to function correctly is referred to as lung disease. The three main types consist of lung tissue diseases, airway diseases, and pulmonary circulation diseases. Lung tissue diseases involve the lung tissue structure. When the tissue becomes inflamed and scarred, the lungs are no longer able to fully expand, which is known as restrictive lung disease. In addition, it also causes the lungs to have more difficulty taking in oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide.
Asthma is diagnosed with a physical exam, a lung function test called spirometry, chest x-rays, an allergy test, and a bronchoprovocation test to measure sensitivity to various common triggers (“What is Asthma?”). Internally, people with asthma experience a trigger which causes inflamed, swollen airways, which can lead to an asthma attack (“Learning More About Asthma”). Common triggers include cold air, allergens, irritants, sulfites, medications, respiratory infections, and physical activity (What is Asthma?”). The etiology of asthma is not fully known, but the main factors that appear to play a role in the development of asthma are genetics, allergies, respiratory infections, and environment. If a child’s parents have asthma, the child is also likely to develop asthma.
What is Asthma? According to WebMD (2014), “asthma is a chronic disease of the airways that makes breathing difficult. With asthma, there is inflammation of the air passages that results in a temporary narrowing of the airways that carry oxygen to the lungs” (WebMD, 2014, para. 1). Asthma Manifestation The signs and symptoms of Asthma ranges from wheezing, chest tightness, Shortness of breath, fatigue with breathing and use of accessory muscles.
Furthermore, the additional side effects may be related to the ICS. This report will seek to explain why Joe was prescribed ICS through detailing the mechanisms by which it is effective in treating symptoms of asthma. Also, this report will attempt to dismiss ICS as causation of unwanted side effects. Hence, the reasons for Joe’s poor response to treatment and additional side effects may be narrowed down. An understanding of the pathogenesis and pathology of asthma is critical in understanding why ICS is used in treatment.
According to the National Institute of Health (NIH) in Understanding Asthma pathophysiology, one of the ways asthma is defined is through bronchial hyperresponsiveness; this is how inflammation affects the lungs. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness can be described by decreased airflow after bronchial irritation by methacholine or histamine. Bronchial provocation with allergens induces an early and late phase... ... middle of paper ... ...ia medicaid population. Retrieved from http://www.wvdhhr.org/bph/hsc/staterv/viewer.asp?target=http://www.wvdhhr.or/bph/hsc/pubs/briefs/012/default.htm&Source=pub.asp&DocID=53 International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. (2011).
One was focusing on hookworm infection and its effect on allergies while the other focused on the effect on asthma. The allergy study had to be tested first in order to make sure the asthma study was safe to perform. Through the studies the researchers hoped to gain knowledge of whether or not hookworms could help or exacerbate the symptoms of allergies and asthma. In the first experiment 30 people who have rhino-conjuncti... ... middle of paper ... ...R, but not substantially. From these experiment many questions and future studies are brought to the table.