African Americans had endured centuries of slavery and the struggle for abolition. When the Emancipation Proclamation took effect on January 1863, it freed 3.1 million of the nation 's 4 million slaves. The 13th amendment passed by Congress on January 31, 1865, and ratified on December 6, 1865, the 13th amendment abolished slavery in the United States. The end of bondage did not bring the Promised Land many had envisioned. There was a new law of the land establish, Jim Crow was legally and violently, in the Old South, where ninety percent of African Americans lived during this time.
“The Great Migration, a demographic shift of African Americans from southern states to midwestern and northeastern states, occurred roughly between 1910 and 1930”(Civil Rights 280). The reason for this migration, African-Americans were seeking a better life and felt that northern cities provided more financial opportunities and better education. In the South during this time, education for African-Americans barely existed and achieving financial stability in the South was very difficult to achieve. Jim Crow assured that African-Americans would not have an e...
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...however, was the most legendary of all night spots. Nationwide radio broadcasts made the club famous all over the United States. Many great performers achieved national recognition as a result of working at the Cotton Club, which was owned by White gangster Owney Madden. ” (Rodger 121). Jack Johnson the first African-American heavyweight champion of the world rented the upper floor of the building on the corner of 142nd St. and Lenox Avenue in the heart of the Harlem district and opened an intimate super club there call Club Deluxe. Owney brought the club from Johnson while he was in prison Sing Sing and change the name to the Cotton Club a deal was brokered that allowed Johnson to remain the clubs manager. All performers at the Cotton Club were African-American and the audience in which they perform for was all white even in the Renaissance Jim Crow has its place.
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