What are Bone Fractures? Essay example

What are Bone Fractures? Essay example

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Bones are rigid and dynamic biological organs where a series of active cells resident and integrate into a stiff matrix and this structure physically support and protect the tissue and organs within our body. Bone stores minerals and bone marrow within bone structure produces new blood cells. over 270 pieces of bones are in infants’ body and several of them fuse together during growth. These bones are in different shapes and have complex and hierarchical structures. With different shapes, mechanical properties and biological activities, they act in a variety of roles for our body functions. In this review paper, we mainly focus on long bone healing, regeneration and tissue engineering strategies. A series of mechanisms such as biochemical mechanisms, cellular biology of bones, hormonal and pathological mechanisms have assignable effect on healing progress of bone tissue.

Osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes are three major bone tissue regeneration related cells that contributes to the completion of injury healing. Differentiated from Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), the major function of osteoblasts is to build bone extracellular matrix (ECM), known as osteoid, by producing and secreting organic compounds, such as Type I collagen. Osteoblasts are also involved in mineralization, where osteoblasts secret alkaline phosphatase that modify the phosphate groups to be the mineral deposition foci [1]. During bone formation, osteoblasts have two pathways to follow. One of these two is to become trapped in the matrix secreted by osteoblast itself and differentiate into osteocytes and the other is to undergo a programmed cell death, termed apoptosis [2]. Osteoblasts affect the skeletal architecture in two major aspects: bone matrix depo...


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11. Kalfas, I.H., Principles of bone healing. Neurosurgical Focus, 2001. 10(4): p. 1-4.
12. LaStayo, P.C., K.M. Winters, and M. Hardy, Fracture healing: bone healing, fracture management, and current concepts related to the hand. J Hand Ther, 2003. 16(2): p. 81-93.
13. Marsell, R. and T.A. Einhorn, The biology of fracture healing. Injury, 2011. 42(6): p. 551-555.
14. Dimitriou, R., E. Tsiridis, and P.V. Giannoudis, Current concepts of molecular aspects of bone healing. Injury-International Journal of the Care of the Injured, 2005. 36(12): p. 1392-1404.
15. Gerstenfeld, L.C., et al., Three-dimensional reconstruction of fracture callus morphogenesis. Journal of Histochemistry & Cytochemistry, 2006. 54(11): p. 1215-1228.

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