It provides protection for such vital organs as the brain, heart and lungs, the marrow of bone produces new blood cells, and it aids the body in balancing acid and electrolytes. Bone is a connective tissue with a hardened matrix that is developed from calcium phosphate deposits. Calcification is the process that creates the hard tissue of bones. They come in various shapes and sizes, from flat bones
Bones are rigid and dynamic biological organs where a series of active cells resident and integrate into a stiff matrix and this structure physically support and protect the tissue and organs within our body. Bone stores minerals and bone marrow within bone structure produces new blood cells. over 270 pieces of bones are in infants’ body and several of them fuse together during growth. These bones are in different shapes and have complex and hierarchical structures. With different shapes, mechanical properties and biological activities, they act in a variety of roles for our body functions.
In the study conducted by Peng et al., a scaffold was designed to engineer large bone tissue in vivo. It is primarily composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) spherules and a porous HA tube coated with poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA). Uniformity of particle size is an important aspect of engineering a scaffold, and HA spherules are used because they can be mixed with biological substances; this better fulfills the need for un... ... middle of paper ... ...f 4-5 cm in length and 1-1.5 cm in diameter. This scaffold consisted of HA spherules in order to best accommodate the engineering of large bone tissue in vivo. It was also constructed into tubes and discs with interconnected pores that allowed for cell proliferation and differentiation.
However some of the basic bone functions include storing of crucial nutrients, minerals and lipids, producing red blood cells for the body, protect the organs such as heart, ribs and the brain, aide in movement and also to act as a buffer for pH. With the differences in all of the bones there are four things that remain the same in each bone, their cells. Bones are made up of four different cells; osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes and bone lining cells. Osteoblasts produce and secrete matrix proteins and then transport the minerals into the matrix. Osteoclasts are responsible for the breaking down of tissue.
Calcium is very important for the body. Calcium helps make the bones strong and dense, without calcium the bones will become weak. The body does not make calcium so the bones have to take the calcium from where it is stored in the body. 3.The calcium levels in the bones are controlled by a negative feedback mechanism. When the calcium in the bones are low the parathyroid hormone also known as PTH will release more of the hormone into the blood, this then stimulate the osteocytes which then causes the bone to breakdown.
The remodelling process comprises of ongoing removal of specific units of long-standing bone and the substitution of these units with newly created osteoid matrix. Lastly in bone remodelling, is the mineralization of this newly placed matrix to shape the bone newly formed. Bone remodelling is characterised by a three-step sequence, commonly referred to as the ARF seqsuence. The first step being activation of bone cell differentiation, the second is bone resorption and the third is bone formation. The tight coupling of bone formation, achieved by osteoblast activity, and bone resorption, achieved by osteoclast activity, is w... ... middle of paper ... ...oaded bone when bone loads fall below the normal physiological range, for example, someone who experiences long term bed rest.
The illium are there to protect the digestive system. Blood cell production – the skeleton is the place of haematopoiesis which is produced in the red bone marrow. Storage – bone tissues stores various minerals such as calcium and phosphorus, they release these minerals into the body when required. Leverage - this is the function which gives the body movement by making the bones act as levers. These levers are responsible for changing the direction of force created by the muscles in our body.
The adaptive as well as the innate responses initiation are hugely associated with each other. The innate response consists of many components; these include mechanical, chemical, humoral as well as cellular barriers. The main line of defence in the innate system is the cellular component; there are different types of cells involved, however, the most critical cell of all other different immune cells is called a macrophage. Macrophages are a phagocytic cells originated from monocytes, a form of blood leukocytes. Monocytes are made by bone marrow in the myeloid lineage through committed haematopoietic stem cells in a process called haematopoiesis.
As an organ, bones protect the viscera and house the hemopoietic tissue (red marrow). As a tissue, bones serve as a reservoir of readily mobilizable calcium, an ion vital for many metabolic processes including cell motility, excitability, secretion, phagocytosis, intermediary metabolism, respiration, and reproduction. Bones (or osseous material) serve a number of diverse purposes in the human anatomy. In addition to providing structure, leverage, protection, and support for the organs of the body, bones also house marrow, which produces blood cells. Within the bones are also stored the calcium deposits which the body may access, via resorption, when needed.