Epistemic Essays

  • Blindsight and Qualities of Visual Perception

    2336 Words  | 5 Pages

    according to which it is a sufficient condition for visual perception that subjects receive visual information in a way which enables them to give reliably correct answers about the objects presented to them. According to this view, blindsight, non-epistemic seeing, and conscious visual experience count as proper types of visual perception. This leads to two consequences concerning the role of the phenomenal qualities of visual experiences. First, phenomenal qualities are not necessary in order to see

  • Moore’s Proposed Proof for an External World

    1598 Words  | 4 Pages

    proof of an external world. In opposition to Moore’s opinions will be found three main arguments: firstly that all of Moore’s evidence is based upon sensory input, secondly that the truth of one fact based on the truth of another fact forms an Epistemic Circle in this case, and finally that the evidence out forth by Moore, even if proved, does not necessarily prove the fact that he is attempting to prove. Moore’s “Proof of an External World” is based on the fact that he has two hands. Moore’s

  • What Anti-Individualists Cannot Know A Priori

    2982 Words  | 6 Pages

    count as a priori. Then, I show that under various possible construals of a priori, the incompatibilist argument would be invalid: either a fallacy of equivocation or an argument without a plausible closure principle guaranteeing transmission of epistemic status from premises to conclusion. Finally, I maintain that the only possible construal of the property of being knowable a priori that avoids invalidity is one that fails to generate the intended reductio. I Compatibilism, or the attempt

  • BonJour's 'Basic Antifoundationalist Argument'

    5885 Words  | 12 Pages

    which, given human psychology, entails global skepticism. His responses to the charge of skepticism, restricting premise three to basic beliefs and noting that the Rule does not require ‘explicit’ belief, fail. Moreover, the Rule does not express an epistemic duty. Finally, his argument against this fails since it is false that if an experiential state has representational content, then it is in need of justification. I venture the diagnosis that BonJour mistook the representational content of a cognitive

  • My Philosophy on Teaching Writing

    3538 Words  | 8 Pages

    restricting, but it’s a necessary skill to have for the future, particularly when it comes to writing essays. Once students have mastered form, they will discover that they actually do have a lot of freedom in expressing their views within it. The epistemic model can be difficult because one always has to keep audience in mind, but it is also very useful, and shows students that their writing can make a difference. Certainly teaching students how to write convincing editorials, petitions, or letters

  • The Importance Of Epistemic Knowledge

    790 Words  | 2 Pages

    Epistemic knowledge is a knowledge of building knowledge itself, the crucial components of involved in the process of building knowledge and the capacity of justifying the knowledge produced by science such as a hypothesis, a theory or an observational claims(diSessa, 1993; Duschl, 2007). Epistemic knowledge plays a paramount role on how we know what we know. Such knowledge enables to understand the nature of science(diSessa, 1993). Understanding nature of science demands to identify scientific theory

  • A Summary of Epistemic Relativism

    950 Words  | 2 Pages

    and sufficient conditions of knowledge? What are its sources? What is its structure, and what are its limits ("Epistemology ")? Epistemic relativism is when the facts used to establish the truth or falsehood of any statement are understood to be relative to the perspective of those proving or falsifying the proposition. While many people scoff at the very idea of epistemic relativism , what they are turning down is a way of thinking that could potentially help solve many of the world's problems by

  • Conscientiousness: Epistemic Virtue

    622 Words  | 2 Pages

    Epistemology is study of knowing and allowing oneself to find the truth. Correspondingly, conscientiousness is the act of caring about truth and getting proof of that truth. Conscientiousness is an epistemic virtue because through this act, a person can carefully make sure that their thoughts or conclusions are correct. In this paper, I will discuss the vices of conscientiousness, such as a person’s demands for proof being either too high or too low; while also discussing the virtues of conscientiousness

  • Linda Zagzebski's On Epistemology

    705 Words  | 2 Pages

    In the works of Linda Zagzebski, On Epistemology, the question of what is meant by an epistemic virtue and how does open-mindedness qualify as virtue. In Epistemology, there is a binding relationship between self-trust and self-knowledge. Zagzebski raises the question of what the relationship is and clearly explains that we cannot have one without the other. Riggs, another philosopher of Epistemology, wrote an article speaking about open-mindedness. Riggs explains how he understands the virtue of

  • Greco's Virtue Reliabilism: Sailing Short of Adequacy

    1247 Words  | 3 Pages

    John Greco in, The Nature of Ability and the Purpose of Knowledge, argues that, “...knowledge is a true belief grounded in intellectual ability” (Greco 1). Now, this is categorically a 'virtue reliabilist' or more specifically, an 'agent reliabilist' claim. The purpose of this paper to analyze Greco's virtue reliablism. Moreover, to articulate one strong objection to Greco's view and to argue that Greco's defense of virtue reliablism fails. Specifically, the argument will be made that the newly instantiated

  • True Epistemic Value of Religious Experiences

    1659 Words  | 4 Pages

    True Epistemic Value of Religious Experiences For many years, the idea of what it means to have a “religious experience” has been greatly debated. Philosophers and great thinkers alike have grappled with many questions, such as what constituted a “religious experience” and the difference between that and a mystical experience. Part of this great debate involves two philosophers from a similar time period, William James and C.D Broad, who each saw these experiences, despite some similarities, as having

  • Perspective and the Right Reasons View in Solving Epistemic Disagreements.

    1024 Words  | 3 Pages

    In “The Epistemic Significance of Disagreement”, Thomas Kelly gives two responses to the question “How should awareness of disagreement, with those that you take to be your epistemic equal, effect the rational confidence you have in your beliefs?”. Kelly discusses two possible responses to the question. The first is Richard Foley's first person perspective argument. Adam Elga calls the second the right reasons view (Elga, 2007 pg. 485). Kelly pursues the latter, and does not go further than agreeing

  • The Truth of Democracy: Why Epistemic Proceduralism May Not Be A Cure-All

    1765 Words  | 4 Pages

    INTRODUCTION In his book, Democratic Authority: A Philosophical Framework, author David Estlund proposes a method of democratic decision making that he calls “epistemic proceduralism.” In preparing to write this critique, I attempted to gain at least a brief but clear understanding of Estlund’s entire framework. Whilst for time and space reasons, I could not delve into all of the available materials, I did happily find that much of this book, including the chapter I will reference primarily in this

  • What is a transparent epistemic rule? How does it relate to privileged access?

    873 Words  | 2 Pages

    Privileged access and epistemic transparency are very interesting ideas. They deal with the idea of individual truths. These truths focus mainly on things that can be true to you, but false to others and can encompass things that may momentarily appear true, yet are generally false. The question philosophers have focused on is as follows: How can something as solid as a “truth” vary from person to person, and mind to mind? The general idea behind this topic is, as discussed in class, that some mental

  • Analysis Of Levi's The Scientist Qua Scientist Makes Value Judgments

    812 Words  | 2 Pages

    Since the mid-20th century, a central debate in the philosophy of science is the role of epistemic values when evaluating its bearing in scientific reasoning and method. In 1953, Richard Rudner published an influential article whose principal argument and title were “The Scientist Qua Scientist Makes Value Judgments” (Rudner 1-6). Rudner proposed that non-epistemic values are characteristically required when making inductive assertions on the rationalization of scientific hypotheses. This paper aims

  • White Ignorance And Black Ignorance

    928 Words  | 2 Pages

    ignorance, which systematically supported socially induced patterns of understanding that works to sustain systematic oppression and privilege. Due to this, white people learn the world wrong but this warped perception will in turn be validated by white epistemic authority and white ignorance will feel like knowledge to those who benefit from this system. Mills also makes the clarification that white ignorance does not exclusively focus on overtly racist uneducated individuals but also educated well-meaning

  • Inception, Directed by Christopher Nolan

    1172 Words  | 3 Pages

    it’s more about the feel of it” (Tullmann 78). Since we truly don’t know how to determine our reality over our dreams, it leads to a constant problem, epistemic angst. Tullmann looks at epistemic angst and the responses to it. Epistemic angst is the feeling of anxiety caused by the uncertainty of anything. To see how we would respond to epistemic angst, we need to know how angst is formed. The skeptical argument concluded that Cobb may not know for certain that he has children. Being the main reason

  • Local Reductionist Claim Summary

    1117 Words  | 3 Pages

    refute the Local Reductionist Claim made by Elizabeth Fricker when evaluating how social identity, specifically how being a member of a minority group, affects credibility of testimony. In doing so, I will expand upon Linda Alcoff’s focus on why an epistemic assessment of what constitutes testimonial knowledge in forming beliefs is important to look at in a social context. I will argue against Fricker’s claim that the hearer should hold all the power to decide whether the testimony from the speaker

  • Analysis Of Begby's The Epistemology Of Prejudice

    1856 Words  | 4 Pages

    view on the topic of prejudices. The common view of prejudice is that: if a person holds a prejudicial claim or thought, then this person must be epistemic culpable because the common view holders take prejudice as an universal generalized claim. In contrast with the common view, Begby claims that there is no strong correlation between prejudices and epistemic culpability, and the common view is incorrect because he thinks that prejudice does not indicate an universal generalization (90). This paper

  • The Pros And Cons Of Inductive Risk

    946 Words  | 2 Pages

    When evaluating inductive risk, it is imperative to evaluate all possible consequences of various solutions before reaching a decision. In Douglas’ article, she argues that “non-epistemic values are a required part of the internal aspects of scientific reasoning for cases where inductive risk includes risk of non-epistemic consequences (Douglas, p. 559). She continues on to explain the foundation for the term inductive risk, and how it came about. “Inductive risk, a term first used by Hempel [in 1965