Success Of An Entreprenuer

Success Of An Entreprenuer

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1. Introduction
Electronic commerce (e-commerce) is
the process of buying and selling goods and
services electronically with computerised
business transactions using the Internet,
networks, and other digital technologies. It
also encompasses activities supporting those
market transactions, such as advertising,
marketing, customer support, delivery, and
payment (Laudon, et al, 2000). In the past
few years, the explosion of e-commerce has
had a profound impact on business worldwide.
The Internet marketer has a global
reach because it eliminates obstacles created
by geography, time zones, and location
(Quelch, et al., 1996). The low entry barriers
have made the global marketplace an easier
playing field for businesses which can
bypass physical networks of intermediaries
and bring goods and services directly to
customers anywhere.
1.1 Electronic Commerce in China
According to official China Internet
Network Information Centre (CNNIC)
report, China has 26.5 million Internet users
as of mid 2001 since linked to the Internet in
1994. In addition, dot-com and e-commerce
web sites have been springing up during the
past couple of years. It has been recently
reported that China ranked seventh among
non-U.S. countries in registering the
maximum number of dot-com companies in
the year ending in February 2000
(Bandyopadhyay, 2001). China now has
more than 600 on-line shopping sites,
accounting for 60% of the total number of ecommerce
websites. Most of these on-line
shops serve consumers in large cities, such
as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. A
report released at the 5th China International
E-Commerce Summit, predicted that
China’s B2C online shopping market scale
will be US$190 million in 2001, and the
transaction amount will increase to US$3.2
billion in 2004 (People’s Daily Online,
2001).
Despite such tremendous numbers and
an apparent huge growth trend, there are
many problems threatening the fast
development of e-commerce. For example:
insecure online payment, uncertain delivery
time, poor after sales service, little guarantee
of product quality, limited range of products
offered, low speed and the high cost of
online access, lack of a public regulation to
protect the buyer, etc. These bottlenecks
may constrain the growth of China’s B2C
transaction (Ernst, D., et al, 2000). Internet
marketers have to resolve these barriers and
launch new e-commerce business models.
1.1 The Japanese 7dream Model
In Japan, there is a consumer based ecommerce
revolution. Seven-Eleven Japan Co.
Ltd, the country’s largest convenience store
chain with 8,200 outlets, established an ecommerce
business model called 7dream.com,
with seven other Japanese companies,
including NEC Corp., Nomura Research
Institute, Sony Corp., Sony Marketing (Japan)
Inc., Mitsui & Co., Ltd., Japan Travel Bureau,
Inc., and Kinotrope, Inc. The consortium
launched the web site in July 2000 to handle a
wide range of operations, including
distribution, sales and services, with product
delivery and payment made at any Seven-
Eleven convenience stores nation-wide. Also,
Seven-Eleven installed in-store multimedia
terminals for consumers to order products
(Seven-Eleven Japan, 2000). Figure 1 shows
the 7dream e-commerce model.
The basic concept behind the 7dream

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model is that after the consumer places an
order on the web, they can pick up and pay for
their purchases at any Seven-Eleven stores on
a 24-hour basis (credit card payments, reliable
pay-on-delivery and home delivery courier
services are also available). This approach
provides the option to use the Internet to do
comparative shopping and purchase goods.
Figure 1 The 7dream Model
Source: Seven-Eleven Japan, 2000
The model offers substantial benefits to
consumers and resolves some barriers of ecommerce
in Japan. Firstly, regarding the
transaction risk problem, consumers who do
not have credit cards or are wary of the
security of using cards online, can pay for
online purchases with cash at the stores.
Secondly, regarding the product reliability
problem, consumers can check the product
quality and pay the money only if they are
..
.
Internet
Marketer
On-line
shopper
Internet
order
order
order
delivery
products
delivery
products
7-Eleven
stores
nationwide
pick up
products
and pay
pick up
products
and pay
after-sale
services
after-sale
services
satisfied. Thirdly, regarding the delivery
problem, consumers can pick up their products
at any Seven-Eleven stores near their homes at
any time. Fourthly, regarding the after sales
service problem; consumers can have quality
after sales services at the stores.
Following a brief discussion of ecommerce
development in global marketing
and in China, the article proposes Japan’s
7dream model to resolve some barriers of ecommerce
in China. Section 2 describes
the relationship between consumer
behaviour and purchasing decision process.
In section 3, the paper explains the
methodology employed in this research.
Section 4 analyses and discusses the results
of the survey and proposes marketing
strategies for Internet marketers. The
conclusion of the article is presented in
section 5.
2. Consumer Behaviour and
Purchasing Decision Process
One principle that holds true in the market
space is that before Internet marketers can
effectively respond to consumer demand, they
must understand consumer behaviour (Butler,
et al, 1998). Consumer behaviour is widely
understood as a problem solving and decisionmaking
sequence, the outcome of which is
determined by the buyer’s goal directed
processing of information (Foxall, 1992).
There are five key stages in the traditional
framework for analyzing consumer purchase
decision processes.
The first stage of the consumer decision
process is Problem Recognition. Problem
recognition occurs when a consumer senses
a disparity between his/her actual state and
his/her desired state (Bruner, 1987).
Consumer problem recognition can be
activated by external or internal factors,
such as an increase in a person’s financial
situation, running out of stock, etc.
The second stage consumer purchase
decision process is Information Search.
Aware of an unmet need, the consumer is
motivated to gather information concerning a
way to satisfy the need. Information gathering
helps consumers become aware of competing
brands or products and their features. In ecommerce,
the consumer is likely to conduct a
more active information search. In a state of
high involvement, the consumer may be more
willing to seek out detailed and quality
information from private or public sources
well as opportunities to acquire information
through product trial experiences (Beatty, et al,
1987).
The third stage is Evaluation
Alternatives. The information search results
in the identification of a set of alternative
products that will reduce or eliminate a felt
need (Howard, et al, 1972). The consumer
attempts to identify product
features/characteristics to determine the likely
consequences of purchasing from the
considered set of alternative products (Philips,
et al, 1995). Using available internal and
external information, the consumer may
process information by attributes or by
products to develop a set of beliefs, or
“product image”, about a product with regard
to its ability to deliver the desired benefits
(Bettman, 1979).
After evaluating alternatives, several
sub-decisions may be involved in the
Purchase Decision. The purchase decision
can be influenced by a number of factors,
not the least of which is perceived risk
(Hawes, et al, 1986). Consumer risk can
result from a fear that a product may not
perform as desired. This risk may reduce the
likelihood that the consumer will purchase
the product (Roselius, 1971).
The last stage of consumer purchasing
behaviour is Post-Purchase Behaviour.
Satisfaction is a function of the extent to
which the buyer’s perception of the
product’s performance meets the buyer’s
product expectations (La Barbera, et al,
1983). When product performance meets
or exceeds expectations, consumers will be
satisfied, and thus, more likely to buy the
product again and, or, speak favourably
about the product to others (Cadotte, et al,
1987). Figure 2 illustrates consumer
purchase decision in traditional commerce
and in e-commerce.
Figure 2 Consumer Purchase Decision
Process in Traditional Commerce versus in
E-Commerce
Source: Butler, P., et. al, (1998) Consumer
Purchasing on the Internet
3. Research Approach
3.1 Research Questions
In China, there are many convenience
stores, especially in some big cities like
Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. The
popularity of convenience stores is on the
rise in China (China Business Review, 1999).
Almost everyone in big cities either lives
within several minutes walk of a
convenience store, or passes one on the way
to or from work. It is a simple matter for
consumers to stop in and pick up a package.
Thus arises the research question: is it
possible to employ Japan’s 7dream business
model in these cities and increase consumer
confidence in e-commerce, therefore
expanding B2C market in China? Some
important research questions are:
(1) What are the main characteristics of
Chinese consumer behaviour in ecommerce?
(2) To what extent would consumers
have more motivation to shop on-line with
the 7dream model?
(3) What are the marketing implications
for Internet marketers with the 7dream
model in China?
3.2 Research Methodology
Data Collection. Several survey methods
were considered for this research, such as mail
survey, on-line survey, telephone survey, email
survey and self-administered survey. A
mail survey is known to produce fewer results
as people might ignore them since there are a
lot of advertisement mails they receive. An
on-line survey would have attracted a greater
response, but it might not be conclusive as the
respondents may not be Chinese residents. A
telephone survey may give inaccurate data as
the respondents could be constrained of time.
A complete self-administered survey would
require more time to conduct. In order to
collect maximum data with the restriction of
time, a combination of e-mail and selfadministered
survey methods were adopted in
this research.
Participants and Procedure. This
survey was done with stratified sampling.
1)financial
increase
2)new product
announcement
3)stocking
requires
Problem
recognition
1) databases
supply
consumers
information
2) identify
consumers need
3) one-to-one
trigger action
1) mass
market
cmmunication
channels, TV
radio,
newspaper
2) one-to-many
trigger action
Information
search
1) interactive and
latest products
information
2) link from
other site
3) quality
information
1) travelling to
retail store
2) TV, newspaper
3) agent, brokers
Evaluation of
alternatives
1) virtual
consumers
communities
2) simulation
and testing
3) interactive
products
comparsion
1) past experience
2) word-of-mouth
3) brand confidence
4) trail and sampling
5) purchasing
criteria
Choice
purchase
1) management of
process
2) management of
transactions and
delivery
1) ease of
ordering,
delievry,
payment,
and
security
Postpurchase
behaviour
1) high-touch
humaninteraction
service
2) relationship
management
3) problem
recovery
1) high-tech
real time
service
2) online support
3 virtual consumer
communities
4) new products
information
Internet commerce
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