Stem Cell Technology: Hypoxia and Its Contributions to Regenerative Medicine

Stem Cell Technology: Hypoxia and Its Contributions to Regenerative Medicine

Length: 2526 words (7.2 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Research Papers

Open Document

Essay Preview

Stem cell technology is developing rapidly to bring tissue and organ regeneration from the foreground of current research to the hands of physicians for therapeutic interventions of injuries. Though this field is rapidly progressing, several limiting factors have reduced the efficacy and survival of many transplanted cells. To understand the limitations, a deeper understanding of the chemo–mechanical environment of an injury is needed. Tissue and organ development from specific progenitor cells is tightly controlled by the surrounding biochemical environment. Specifically, oxygen tension, otherwise known as the partial pressure of oxygen, is one of many critical factors playing into the differentiation process of cells into specific tissues. There is a delicate balance between hypoxia (a result of low oxygen tension) and normoxia through the cell life cycle, and this balance varies depending on the biological micro niche in which it resides. Tissue injuries are often accompanied by regions of ischaemia which have proved to negatively influence the survival of transplanted stem cells. This has brought about important adaptations in ex vivo tissue expansion protocol as well as in vivo injury therapies like transplantation of cardiac cells into the hypoxic environment of a recent myocardial infarction or other regions of ischaemic attacks. This review will present the progress of current knowledge on the role of oxygen tension in organogenesis and the significant clinical applications within stem cell therapies. Previously, it has been reported that stem cell fate differs with various oxygen tensions depending on lineage. Here, we first look into the initial uncertainty of the effects of hypoxia and stem cell fate as rep...

... middle of paper ...

...ndrial respiration and biogenesis, glycolysis, cell proliferation, and cell apoptosis (6). Though hypoxic conditions have been shown to fairly effective at preventing apoptosis and ensuring cell survival after graft, the future of preconditioning lies in pharmaceutical approaches to mimic hypoxic conditions. though Cobalt has this effect, it is toxic to the organic body. This has prompted research into other pharmaceuticals to have a similar and safer effect. Perhaps genetic therapy to induce expression of factors relevant to hypoxic environment is a potential means of preconditioning. Investigation into every aspect which promotes stem cell transplant survival will contribute to the reality of regenerative medicine in clinical applications.


6. Tsai YP, Wu KJ. Hypoxia-regulated target genes implicated in tumor metastasis. J Biomed Sci. 2012;20:102.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Finding a Cure through Regenerative Medicine: Government-Funded Embryonic Stem Cell Research

- Richard J. Gross a developmental biologist once said, “If there were no regeneration, there could be no life. If everything regenerated there would be no death.” In 2001 President George W. Bush banned the further funding of embryonic stem cell research. Why. Some feel that embryonic stem cell research encouraged abortion, and that by banning the federal funding for embryonic stem cell research it would lessen the rates of abortion. However, just recently President Barack Obama has reversed that law and thereby allowing federal funding for embryonic stem cell research....   [tags: Regenerative Medicine, Government Funding, Embryon]

Research Papers
1588 words (4.5 pages)

Neural Precursor Cells and Neuro-Regenerative Medicine Essay

- Introduction The adult central nervous system (CNS) is comprised of cells from two distinct lineages- neurons and glial cells. Neurons are the basic building block of CNS that responsible for communicating information via eletro-chemical mechanisms. Glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) surround the neurons; provide them support and insulation. “No new neuron after birth” or “the adult human brain cannot regenerate” was the dogma of neurosciences for the past century (1). Recently, this principle has been challenged by the discovery of NPC in both embryonic and adult mammalian nervous system (1, 2)....   [tags: Medicine]

Research Papers
636 words (1.8 pages)

The Stem Cell Regenerative Medicine Essay

- I had emailed Emily Sumner and she suggested me to talk to you. I 'm looking to obtain a green card without a no objection letter and I really need an attorney who can help me with the situation. I graduated doctoral degree in Biomedical Engineering from Stony Brook University and my dissertation is very specific on the stem cell regenerative medicine (in the topic of 'mechanotransduction of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell and bone marrow niches). I have developed a non-pharmacological treatment to suppress bone loss, improve bone formation and bone healings in osteoporosis and diabetic patients....   [tags: Bone marrow, Stem cell, Mesenchymal stem cell]

Research Papers
993 words (2.8 pages)

Regenerative Medicine Essay

- Imagine a treatment that helps a grandmother weakened by heart failure regain her independence. Imagine damaged organs regenerating and wounds healing without leaving scars. Imagine a child desperate for an organ transplant that can now smile again because he has a liver. Regenerative medicine is a relatively new approach to treating injuries and diseases; it utilizes specially-grown tissues and cells (including stem cells), laboratory-made compounds, and artificial organs. Variations of these methods can intensify the healing process in the areas its needed most, or take over the role of a permanently damaged organ....   [tags: Stem Cells, Physical Treatment]

Research Papers
1341 words (3.8 pages)

Essay on Regenerative Medicine

- Common among all living things is our starting point. No matter our species, origin, or sex, we all develop from a single cell. Acting as the foundation for our growth and development, it is the cells ability to develop into other cells that may hold the key to the future of medicine. With current technology, common ailments like disease and injury are healed through direct approaches and treatment like medicine. While this approach has significantly increased the health and well-being of humanity, it does have its shortcomings....   [tags: Medical Science]

Research Papers
698 words (2 pages)

Essay on Importance of Regenerative Medicine in Health Care

- Imagine a world where no one dies of CANCER or HEART ATTACK, where sick people are provided with affordable cures and treatments, or where a person does not die due to the unavailability of suitable blood or organ donor. Is such a world possible. As the human race is moving towards advancement the number of diseases and disorders are also on increase. To fight against these problems many new health care field have emerged since the past half-decade. Most promising of those fields is the Regenerative medicine....   [tags: affordable treatment, antibiotics, dna]

Research Papers
1161 words (3.3 pages)

Alert Regenerative Medicine Army (ARMA) Essay

- Present Technology     Today there are many people on organ wait lists who are unnecessarily losing their lives due to the small pool of donors. "In Western Europe as a whole 40,000 patients await a kidney, but only approximately 10,000 kidneys or so become available each year" (Lott, et al 2007). There are about a 100,000 people on organ transplant waiting lists in the US and about a dozen die each day due to the lack of organs (Caplan 2008). Therefore many lives could be saved by using stem cells to generate organs....   [tags: organ transplants, nanotechnology]

Research Papers
1855 words (5.3 pages)

Essay on Tissue Engineering or Regnerative Medicine

- The term tissue engineering is often synonymous with regenerative medicine. It is essentially the use of a combination of engineered material constructs, suitable biochemical factors and/or cells to improve or replace the function of a failing organ. Other applications of tissue engineering are the testing of drug efficacy and toxicity, as well as the basic studies of tissue development (Berthiaume, Maguire, & Yarmush, 2011). Most tissue engineering methods utilize living cells; therefore the supply of reliable cells is essential....   [tags: bone, biomedical factors, synthetic]

Research Papers
704 words (2 pages)

Essay about Islamic Contributions to Medicine: The Making to a Scientific Culture

- During the Middle Ages of Islamic history, eighth century and running until the twelfth century, a change in the way of spiritual thinking and flexible control in government allowed for a responsive advancement in the arts and sciences. Muslim scholars continued the intellectual traditions of the Greeks within the framework of the Islamic religion. “The positive influence of the Islamic faith which fosters learning and knowledge and this greatly contributed to the blossoming of a culture of free inquiry and rational scientific thinking....   [tags: muslim scholars, medicine]

Research Papers
1027 words (2.9 pages)

Essay about The Role of Macrophages in Hypoxia

- From the viewpoint of biochemists, hypoxia is known as the transport of a limited amount of O2 molecules, while clinicians and physiologists define it as a deficiency of O2 below the normal level of the area, leading to limiting or even cancelling some of the functions of cells and tissues (Michael and Peter, 2001). There are a number of factors which can lead to hypoxia, for example: 1) low O2 tension in arterial blood ]normal O2 tension in arterial blood is around 95 mmHg (~12%)(Timothy, 2010)], which may be caused by pulmonary diseases such as hypoxemic hypoxia; 2) disorders in blood which lead to a loss of its ability to carry O2, for example anemia and carbon monoxide poisoning (anemi...   [tags: Hypoxic Area, Life with Oxygen]

Research Papers
908 words (2.6 pages)