The Gamma Knife: A Tool for Treating Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors

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According to the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS), the incidence rate of all primary malignant and non-malignant brain and central nervous system tumors (CNS) for 2005 to 2009 was 20.6 cases per 100,00 (7.3 per 100,000 for malignant tumors and 13.3 per 100,000 for non-malignant tumors) (Fig. 1) [1]. Figure 1. Average annual incidence rates of primary brain and CNS tumors by age and type of tumor [1]. The incidence rate for children between 0 and 19 years old was 5.13 per 100,000. For adults over 20 years of age, the incidence rate was 26.8 per 100,000. The rate was higher in females (22.3 per 100,000) than males (18.8 per 100,000). The distribution of the type of brain and CNS tumors is shown in Figure 2. Figure 2. Distribution of brain and CNS tumors by type [1]. Non-malignant meningioma was most frequently reported as it accounts for more than a third of all tumors. Glioblastoma was the second most frequent type to be reported followed by tumors of the pituitary. Brain metastases are a common complication of cancer. The incidence of brain metastases is increasing worldwide [2]. About 160,000 to 170,000 of new cases occur per year in the United States. The most frequent types of cancers that tend to develop brain metastases are lung cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma, which account for 67%-80% of all cancers [3]. The most recent population-based study was conducted by Barnholtz-Sloan et al. [4] who used the Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance System and found the incidence percentage of brain metastases to be 9.6% between 1973 and 2001. Overall, population-based studies show incidence rates of brain metastases ranging from 8.3 to 14.3 per 100,000 population and 8.5-9.6... ... middle of paper ... ... 3, pp. 869-877, 2002. U. F. a. D. Administration, "510(k) Premarket Notification," [Online]. Available: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/Cfdocs/cfPMN/pmn.cfm?start_search=1&productcode=IWB&applicant=ELEKTA%20INSTRUMENT%20AB. U. F. a. D. Administration, "Class 2 Device Recall Leksell Gamma Knife C," [Online]. Available: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/Cfdocs/cfres/res.cfm?id=90081. U. F. a. D. Administration, "Class 2 Device Recall Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion," [Online]. Available: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfRES/res.cfm?id=88709. K. Brown, P. Williams, J. Wong and D. Yan, "Collimator for radiotherapy apparatus US 6,714,627 B1," 30 March 2004. [Online]. Available: www.google.com/patents/US6714627. "Production of Refractory Metal Powders," in Powder Metal Technologies and Applications, vol. 7, 1998, pp. 188-201.

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