Essay PreviewMore ↓
It is of paramount consideration that social workers are conscious of, aware and sensitive to the cultural demands of their clientele. This is because culture is a pivotal factor upon which a great deal of conduct, norms, social connections and mindsets of clients revolve. For social workers there is need to understand and appreciate how cultural traditions influence relationships with a diverse panorama of client needs and demands. This literature review seeks to create a foundation regarding the facts stated above through filtering and analysis of relevant and interesting research studies and works by previous authors. This review of literature focuses on how social workers develop or maintain cultural competence following graduation from Masters of Social Work Program. It aimed at providing answers for further research regarding how social workers maintain cultural competence post graduation. In addition, this literature review seeks to consider that social workers are not enhancing their cultural awareness post graduation as mandated by the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) code of ethics.
DEFINITION OF CULTURAL COMPETENCE
There are many definitions of the term cultural competence. Davidhizar et al, (1998) defines it as the process of developing awareness about one’s own thoughts, feelings and the environment without allowing influence from the background of others. Another definition of cultural competence is the ability to have adequate understanding and knowledge of client’s culture. Yet another definition describes it as the process of recognizing, accepting and respecting cultural differences. These definitions are universal and provide definitions of cultural competence in all dimensions of life. In the context of social work, cultural competence is defined as the ability of social workers to carry out their duties in a manner consistent with the expectations of cultural groups they serve. Goldberg (2000) asserts that cultural competence is not an ultimate goal that organizations should strive to achieve but rather it is a continuous process that should progressively grow over time. Experiences during practice should enable social workers to identify strengths and vulnerabilities that will enable them to develop into culturally competent professionals.
Despite integration of comprehensive cultural studies into the academic curriculum, a gap still exists in the response to the problem and needs of the ever-growing culturally diverse community.
How to Cite this Page
"Social Work Literature Review." 123HelpMe.com. 20 Apr 2019
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- National Association of Social Work Standards Social workers’ ethical responsibilities to clients The ethical dilemma in is conflict with the social worker’s ethical responsibility to standard (1.01) commitment to clients. Per the standard, it is the “social workers’ primary responsibility is to promote the well-being of clients” (NASW, 2008). Obviously, there is an inherent value to support individuals with a developmental disability to gain employment within their communities. In doing so the individual will be an active member of their community and will be earning financial gains to contribute to and enhance their situation.... [tags: Social work, Sociology, Social justice, Ethics]
745 words (2.1 pages)
- The purpose of the literature review is to identify and highlight the important variables, and to document the significant findings from earlier research that will serve as the foundation on which the conceptual or theoretical framework for the current investigation can be based and the hypotheses developed (Cavana, Delahaye & Sekaran 2000). This stage is important to convince the reader that the researcher is knowledgeable about the problem area and has done the preliminary groundwork to conduct the research, and also that the conceptual framework will be built on the solid foundation of existing knowledge The literature review has emphasised on the importance of four major and common facto... [tags: Literature Review]
723 words (2.1 pages)
- The basis of good character involves being respectful, honest, hardworking, responsible, caring, and understanding. Parents and teachers alike wish for their students to possess good character; but what does “character” mean in the realm of education; and whose responsibility is it to ensure that students do in fact develop good character. The Character Education Partnership (2003, pg. 1), defines good character as involving “understanding, caring about, and acting upon core ethical values”, and thus takes a holistic approach to the development of character in students by developing the “cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects of moral life.” Through character education, students can gr... [tags: Literature Review]
1320 words (3.8 pages)
- Research oriented scholars in the field of social work have been concerned with the inadequacies of the use of research with practitioners (Rubin & Parrish, 2007). Social workers have tended to rely on supervisors and authorities for guidance in their practice instead of utilizing research studies (Mullen & Bacon, 2004). In recent years, evidence based practiced has been the latest attempt to bridge the gap between practice and research in social work education (Rubin & Parrish, 2007). Students of social work education will need to be able to comprehend research articles, analyze their faults, and utilize them in practice.... [tags: Social Work, argumentative, persuasive]
1892 words (5.4 pages)
- Introduction/background The perceived motivations for wanting to enter into the social work profession has been a topic of controversial debate for several decades, with intrinsic benefits outweighing the extrinsic benefits, many question why an individual would enter into such a low paying profession with such high stressors involved. These preconceived notions about motivations for choosing to enter into such a field consist of primarily intrinsic motivations such as feelings of satisfaction, a sense of accomplishment, and a love for one 's work.... [tags: Sociology, Master of Social Work, Interview]
1420 words (4.1 pages)
- Forensic Psychology, which is occasionally referred to as Legal Psychology, originally made its debut in the late 1800’s. A Harvard Professor, Professor Munsterberg, introduced the idea of psychology and law with his book, On the Witness Stand in 1908. Since the inception of the idea of psychology and law there have been proponents, as well as though that have spoken against the theories proposed by Munsterberg’s, along with other scientists, theorists, and psychologists that believed that Forensic Psychology had no standing to be linked to topics of law.... [tags: Literary Review ]
1703 words (4.9 pages)
- Introduction Problem Significance Social work burnout is an issue for many people; burnout does not just affect the social worker though. If a social work is experiencing burn out then they are less likely going to be able to preform at their best capacities, accordingly the client will suffer from this. Social work burnout is more common than expected. The NASW did a survey and found that roughly 65% of social are experiencing fatigue, 37% are experiencing Psychological problems, and 23% are experiencing sleep disorders.... [tags: Social work, Sociology, Psychotherapy]
1015 words (2.9 pages)
- Stress management is a contemporary issue that presents itself in the social work profession. Merriam-Webster (1828) defines stress as a state of mental tension that can cause an emotional state of anxiety and burden that is caused by problems from different areas in an individual’s life. Based on the literature and research presented on the topic of stress, the scientific definition of stress is more difficult to define. Scientists at the American Institute of Stress (AIS, 2016) explains that stress is a difficult subject to define due to it being a highly subjective phenomenon that everyone experiences differently.... [tags: Social work, Management, Coping skill, Stress]
2331 words (6.7 pages)
- Earning my bachelor’s in human services will lead into my career in the field of social work. The field of social work is nothing new: Simon Patten coined the term social workers in 1900 (Robert 1995). Literature on aspects of the field, how to get involved in social work, and what type of work a social worker performs will be included in my research. For the purpose of this review, I will focus my research on current information, 2008 to current. The major theme of my research includes looking at the positives and negatives of different fields in social work.... [tags: meantal health, social work, susbtance abuse]
857 words (2.4 pages)
- A common behavior that happens amongst women of middle-age is emotional eating. This occurs when women eat to hide their negative emotions. There are a few disorders that are related to emotional eating, which are important to know about to determine if the participant may have the disorder. That way it would be easier for the behavior to be change because of medicines to help. The first one is Binge-Eating Disorder (BED) where a person consumes an insane amount of food in one sitting. The second one is Night-Eating Syndrome (NES) where the person does not have an appetite during the day but then obsessively eats after 8pm, usually because of insomnia or frustration.... [tags: Literature Review]
1323 words (3.8 pages)
It is therefore, clear that social workers are not adequately equipped with cultural competence skills after graduation from Masters of Social Work Program (MSW). It has prompted managers in social work service to find other avenues of equipping their workers with the skills in order to practice what they actually profess. In order to explain the scope of the matter, researchers have conducted many studies across the globe. Additionally, public service managers are striving to ensure continuous cultural competence training for their staff regardless of their academic knowledge in cultural awareness.
In their study on ways of reducing ethnic and racial health disparities through cultural competence, Brach and Fraser (2000) point out various techniques of cultural competence. They argue that cultural competence among health providers cannot be achieved without support from the entire health care system and therefore, the issue of cultural competency should be institutionalized. Although much of the literature has detailed the importance of culture knowledge, awareness, skills and attitude, very little has highlighted ways that the health system should be revived to support cultural competence among health care professionals. According to Tocher and Larson (1998), cultural competence techniques identified in literature discuss a single approach thus causing fault lines in the practice of health workers. Brach and Fraser (2000) identify nine techniques to culturally competent health service practice.
The first method is use of interpreter services. According to Lynch and Hanson (2004), language barriers hinder 21% of American minorities from receiving good health care. Research indicates that individuals with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) have a higher rate of low patient satisfaction. Findings from this research show that such patients are more likely to miss their subsequent appointments or fail to adhere to medical prescriptions. A study conducted on Vietnam refugees in the USA shows that they do not utilize health care services due to language differences. The research revealed that of paramount concern is lack of interpreters in health facilities. Interviewees expressed willingness to use the health care facilities if interpreters were availed. Communication forms an integral part in service delivery (Tocher and Larson, 1998). Communication between individuals speaking in different languages and from different cultures could be improved by the use of interpreter services. Interpreters can offer services in either interpretation of foreign language or sign language for the sake of the deaf and blind patients. Depending on the hospital policy, various interpretation approaches are available; professional on-site interpreters; informal interpreters (other staff, family and friends, patients in the waiting room). Tocher and Larson (1998) revealed similar outcomes for diabetic patients who are non-English speaking but received informal interpretation services from English-speaking patients. Although many hospitals consider the use of professional interpreters as an expensive undertaking, other interpreter methods such as the informal interpreters raise the question of confidentiality of the patient’s medical details.
With the use of interpreter services, there is satisfaction for non-English speaking clients and more importantly keeping confidentiality. This therefore, brings up the second technique of cultural competence, which is recruitment, and retention of minority staff.” Social workers should reflect the client population demographics. Brach and Fraser (2000) argue that for instance in the health practice, certain aspects important during practice such as developing rapport with patients may lack if their race and cultures differ. Patients and health providers with the same race, hence culture communicate more effectively thus making the treatment process successful. Hiring minority staffs who share a common language and cultural beliefs with clients from minority cultures provide a welcoming and comfortable environment that also reflects the needs of everyone in the particular society (Tocher and Larson 508). Presence of minority staff enhances ‘user friendliness’ of services delivered to minority populations which in turn enhances accessibility to health care. Another rational to recruitment and retention of minority staff is the fact that such individuals are less likely to engage in ethnic and racial discrimination. Discrimination, whether overt or subconscious, is believed to contribute greatly to treatment differences of clients by social workers.
Training is another strategy of enhancing cultural competence among social workers following their graduation from master’s degrees. Cultural competence training programs are designed to achieve one or all of these goals: (1) increase staff knowledge about minority groups; (2) to perfect their communication skills; and (3) to change attitudes and improve self-awareness towards minority populations. According to the third standard of the NASW (2006), social workers are expected to continually seek knowledge on matters of cultural competence as the globe is radically becoming culturally diverse. They should strive to take part in every training opportunity in order to expand their knowledge and expertise. The behavior of social workers can be renewed through training that in turn is to improve client communication, treatment outcomes in patients and adherence to prescription and advice. Matsunaga et al (2003) observes that activities and interests in cultural competence training have increased tremendously over the past years. In the increasing efforts to promote continuous training of social workers within their practice, the American Academy of Pediatrics’ Committee issued a policy in 1999 stating the importance of competency training for all medical practitioners throughout their practice. According to New York and New Jersey legislatures, physicians are mandated to have cultural competence training as requirement for licenses for their practice. However, critics argue that training is not necessarily effective especially if it involves the education and shorter course approach. A short-term training program has less effect in changing the behavior of the trainee. Other critic such as Davis et al posits that training may be uneven such that trainees acquire knowledge in some area and have a deficit in another. Insufficient research however, has been conducted to identify training strategies that will ensure maximum results.
COMMUNITY SOCIAL SERVICE
Community social service is another branch with social service that enhances cultural competence. Such include community health workers. The United States adapted programs of community health workers for the international arena. Such programs are mostly common in developing countries and are for most part used to reach out to the underprivileged where health systems are limited. By definition, social health workers are professional members of the society who are assigned to work outside their locales and they serve as connection point between the underserved populations and health care providers. Community health workers vary depending on the program they are undertaking; indigenous health care providers, neighborhood workers, and lay health advisers. Social health workers provide a good example of cultural competence. They are adequately equipped with cultural skills that enable them to effectively interact with people in remote places (Matsunaga pg 39).