Side Effects of Anticancer Drugs used in Chemotherapy Essay

Side Effects of Anticancer Drugs used in Chemotherapy Essay

Length: 2146 words (6.1 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Term Papers

Open Document

Essay Preview

Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women and is a leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Adjuvant chemotherapy is standard systemic treatment for breast cancer patients after surgical removal of tumor [1]. The anticancer drugs used in chemotherapy for tumors, kill cancer cells predominantly by triggering apoptosis in them [2]. Susceptibility of cancer cells to apoptosis depends on their capabilities to express the components of apoptosis pathway and to activate them in response to extrinsic or intrinsic death signals [3]. The extrinsic pathways are mediated by the death receptor- and the cytotoxic granule-mediated pathways. On the other hand, the intrinsic death mechanisms are mediated by the mitochondrial pathway [3,4]. FasR/FasL system, cytotoxic granule mediated pathway and mitochondrial pathway are major regulators of apoptosis involved in cancer cell death induced by immune system and chemotherapeutic agents [4].
The FasR/FasL system is a key signal pathway involved in regulation of apoptosis in several different cell types [2, 5]. Fas (CD 95), a 48 kDa type I transmembrane receptor, is expressed in activated lymphocytes, in variety of tissues of lymphoid or non-lymphoid origin as well as tumor cells [2,6]. Fas ligand (CD 95L), a 40 kDa type II transmembrane molecule occurs in membrane bound and soluble form, generated through cleavage by metalloproteinase. FasL is produced by activated T cells and plays a crucial role in the regulation of immune system by triggering autocrine suicide or paracrine death in neighboring lymphocytes or other target cells including tumors [2]. It has been shown that FasL expression is induced following chemotherapy [7]. Granzyme B is a serine protease found in the cy...

... middle of paper ...

...J, Radaszkiewicz T, Meijer CJ. Granzyme B expressing peripheral T-cell lymphomas: Neoplastic equivalents of activated cytotoxic T cells with preference for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue localization. Blood, 1994; 84(11): 3785-91.
23. Spaeny-Dekking EHA, Hanna WL, Wolbink AM, Wever PC, Kummer JA, Swaak AJ, Middeldorp JM, Huisman HG, Froelich CJ, Hack CE. Extracellular granzymes A and B in humans: Detection of native species during CTL responses in vitro and in vivo. J Immunol, 1998; 160: 3610-6.
24. Boivin WA, Cooper DM, Hiebert PR, Granville DJ. Intracellular versus extracellular granzyme B in immunity and disease: challenging the dogma. Lab Invest, 2009; 89: 1195-1220.
25. Tsavaris N, Kosmas C, Vadiaka M, Kanelopoulos P, Boulamatsis D. Immune changes in patients with advanced breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy with taxanes. Br J Cancer, 2002;87: 21-7.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Effects of Drugs on Consciousness Essay

- The altered states of consciousness produced by drugs presents an all-to-common phenomenon in today’s society. Whether the desired sensation comes in the form of energy, a means of relaxation, or pain reduction, many people go to great lengths and present their bodies to threatening conditions in order to achieve this euphoric “high.” Unfortunately, the use of these drugs very often comes with dangerous side effects that users must learn to manage with for the rest of their life. According to neuroscientists, our entire conscious existence bases itself off of the lighting-fast reactions occurring in our nervous system (Nichols, 2012)....   [tags: Conciousness, drugs, addiction]

Term Papers
1057 words (3 pages)

Side Effects: Why drugs Are Poision Essay

- ... This short cut method gave rise to what is now known as side effects. The change in how we make our medications from the alchemical process to the chemical process is to blame. We see the side effects that cause the most damage in the medication that treat mental illnesses. The Citizens Commission on Human Rights says "Psychotropic drugs are increasingly being exposed as chemical toxins with the power to kill. Psychiatrists claim their drugs save lives, but according to their own studies, psychotropic drugs can double the risk of suicide....   [tags: medicine, chemical process]

Term Papers
986 words (2.8 pages)

Essay on Effects of Psychoactive Drugs

- Development is a never ending cycle in life. Each person begins to develop from conception until passing away. Now, while most people think that development starts after birth that is incorrect. Development starts as soon as the baby is conceived. Everything that a woman carrying a baby does or takes place in will translate into the baby. The baby shares a blood flow with the mother. Drugs, even legal drugs, will go into the mother’s blood stream which will then go into the baby’s blood stream. The “maternal blood flows through the uterine arteries to the spaces housing the placenta, and it returns through the uterine vein to the maternal circulation” (Santrock, 2012, p....   [tags: Pregnancy, Blood Stream, Baby. Drugs]

Term Papers
1211 words (3.5 pages)

Essay on Performance Enhancing Drugs

- Performance Enhancing Drugs (PED’s) In all areas of sports, professional, college, and even high school, there is widespread illegal use of performance-enhancing drugs. It seems like you can’t go more than a week without hearing about somebody’s PED problems. Although there are many reasons for athletes to choose to use these drugs, the cost of such use, both to the athlete and to society can be extraordinarily high. The question that many people must answer to themselves is “is it worth the risk”....   [tags: Drugs ]

Term Papers
1825 words (5.2 pages)

Essay Say No To Drugs!

- Say No To Drugs. Few people deny the dangers of drug use, while many teens are curious about drugs. They should stay away from drugs because drugs affect our health, lead to academic failure, and jeopardizes safety. Drugs are used from a long period of time in many countries. The concentration of drugs has increased from late 1960’s and 1970’s. Drugs can quickly takeover our lives. Friends and acquaintance have the greatest influence of using drugs during adolescence. Drugs are chemicals that change the way a person's body or mind works....   [tags: Drugs, argumentative, persuasive]

Term Papers
423 words (1.2 pages)

Essay on The Effects Of Drugs On Drugs And Drugs

- Out of all of the drugs popular in the greater Toledo area, heroin is becoming one of the most popular of the drugs of choice for abuse. Many people who begin to use heroin do not understand the many different effects heroin can have, especially after addiction. I have decided to do research on heroin because of its popularity in the Toledo area and because of how dangerous it can be for those who use it. Throughout my research on heroin I will look into the physiological impacts, the psychological impacts, the possible social effects, how people use this drug in America, the casualties caused by this drug, how the drug impacts a users life, if the drug exposes a person to any diseases, and...   [tags: Heroin, Drug addiction, Addiction, Withdrawal]

Term Papers
1510 words (4.3 pages)

Essay on Anticancer Drugs And Its Clinical Indications And Side Effects

- List the individual anticancer groups with at least 2 examples in each group and list their clinical indications and side effects. Anticancer drugs are organized according to how they function, their chemical structure, and their interaction with other drugs. The following is a list of the anticancer or chemotherapy drugs along with examples, clinical indications, and side effects. 1. Alkylating agents: “Directly damage DNA to keep the cell from reproducing. These drugs work in all phases of the cell cycle and are use to treat different cancers”("Chemotherapy Drugs," 2015, p....   [tags: Cancer, Chemotherapy, Breast cancer, Metastasis]

Term Papers
1274 words (3.6 pages)

Essay on The War on Drugs

- The War on Drugs The world has many different issues, and without them the world would be a perfect place. An issue that causes a lot of controversy is drug abuse. Though the world can never be a perfect place, humans still need to do our best to make in inhabitable as possible, and drugs cause a lot of harm towards humans. Therefore, it is my belief that the first thing that needs to be fixed should be drugs and their abuse. Many possible solutions to this problem exist. Drugs come from a wide variety of different places....   [tags: Drug Abuse, Illegal Drugs, Plants, Chemicals]

Term Papers
1439 words (4.1 pages)

Essay on Drugs in Sports

- Drug’s in Sports In today’s professional athletic events athletes are using whatever they can find to give them an upper hand or give them the winning edge on other athletes just to keep there careers in check, but what is the price of using drugs in sports. Athletes endanger not only themselves but everyone around them when they use drugs. Athletes are aware what damages they could receive if they take these drugs but they refuse to give them up. Professional sports commissioners should enforce a drug testing policy for all athletes....   [tags: Drugs, argumentative, persuasive, ped]

Term Papers
1709 words (4.9 pages)

Comparing Modern and Alternative Medicines Essay

- Over the centuries, ancients made use of several treatment methods. Two of them are modern medicine and traditional medicine. Alternative medicine is older than modern one. That effective therapy has used for many centuries on the patience when modern medicine has not occurred in the world. Because it has improved in China, it can be called Traditional Chinese Medicine. In contrast, modern medicine has been in used since 1900’s. In this system, drugs’ testes are done in safety laboratories with care and nicety, and their side effects are located before they are given to the patient....   [tags: side effects, drugs, placebo]

Term Papers
633 words (1.8 pages)