Hodgkin and non Hodgkin Lymphoma When cells in the lymphatic system grow at an abnormal rate, it creates a malignant tumor, Cancer. Hodgkin lymphoma and Non- Hodgkin lymphoma are both cancers that originate in white blood cells, in the lymphatic system. The system is responsible for fighting infection, bacteria, viruses, and removing damaged cells by producing lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell that is important to the immune system; they decide how the immune system will respond to infections or any an familiar organism). The system also communicates with the blood circulatory system by transporting lymph (a clear fluid that carries lymphocytes, waste, and excess fluid from tissues back into the blood system through the thoracic duct.)
Of those treatments the most important one is the use of drugs and is called chemotherapy. • This treatment includes wide group of drugs that have cytotoxic effects mainly on the rapidly dividing cells but not exclusively. So that’s why, it also have unwanted side effects on the life of normal cells in the body of a cancer patient. • The excessively active growth signaling pathways in cancer cells make them susceptible to huge variety of chemotherapeutic drugs whose target is growth signaling molecules and processes involved in cellular expression and replication. • But sometimes, in most of the patients whose cancer cell line was responding to chemotherapy, show a decrease or complete loss of response which results in tumor regrowth leading to cancer drug resistance.
One advance has been the use of a cell process known as apoptosis. By harnessing this normal cell process, scientists hope to have found an effective way to combat cancer. Cancer is a disease that affects human somatic cells. It causes the cells to divide uncontrollably and form masses known as tumors. There are two different types of cancer tumors.
Stem cells divide to produce more cells which are called progenitor cells. These cells further divide and transition into differentiated cells that have specific functions. However, a mutation occurs here which causes the cells to undergo de-differentiation and a series of mutative events occu... ... middle of paper ... ... a large tumor that is nourished from blood vessels. When a drug is used to kill cancerous cells, there will be a few cells that will be resistant to it. This causes the surviving cells to multiply and create a whole new colony resistant to that specific drug.
When they arise, they violate the condominium which regulates the cells’ activities and duties. The cancer cells then become hard to manipulate, and begin following their own internal agenda for cell reproduction. After they break free and begin causing damage by migrating from the site where they began, they start invading nearby vital tissues and organs and forming masses at distant sites in the body. When these cells take over tissues and start forming masses, they compose tumors. When unnoticed or uncontrolled, these tumors can develop aggressively and quickly causing major disruption in vital organs and tissues needed for the person’s survival and growth.
For example the cyclophosphamide drug binds the DNA during replication of the DNA. However this has many side effects because it is systemic, it also targets the other rapidly dividing cells like the red blood cells which explain the side effects of having anaemia (2). A solution to this problem would be to create specific drugs for that cancer cell; through personalised medicine. Personalised medicine means tailoring a medicine specific to the patient depending on their cancer’s genetic makeup, using antibodies is a type of this. Another form of personalised medicine is by using magnetic Nano-particles to make the treatment more localised to act as... ... middle of paper ... ...treat this cancer I would use antibody to EGFR attached to nanoparticles and inject it in the cancerous area.
Consequently, novel treatments have been devised and noteworthy is the field of virotherapy which may have the potential to sway the tides of war. Rewinding to the root of the problem is unchecked cell reproduction for that is from where cancer arises. A cell manages to avoid the regular checks intended to monitor the cell’s normal development, resulting in it dividing continuously through mitosis until the abnormal cells aggregate to form a mass/primary tumour at the site of the initial cancer progression. At this point, these cells are not invasive nor metastatic, yet they may accumulate genetic alterations as they reproduce, giving them such capabilities. Metastasis may then occur as the cancer spreads to other organs by invading the circulatory or lymphatic system.
One of the recent developments in the research behind oncogenesis and its relationship to cancer is the theory of “oncogenic addiction”. This theory explains the phenomena of “a tumor cell seemingly exhibiting dependence on a single oncogenic pathway or protein for its sustained proliferation and/or survival” (Sharma & Settleman 2007). These findings suggest that there may be a way to “switch off the crucial pathway of dependence”, which in theory should negatively affect or inhibit the cancer, “while sparing normal cells that are not similarly addicted” (Sharma & Settleman 2007). This has been established with the ability to inactivate “counterparts of oncogenic proteins in normal tissues” and see that there is toleration without “obvious consequences” (Sharma & Settleman 2007). This is the concept of “addiction” in cancer, and the dependence on particular genes to activate prolifer... ... middle of paper ... ...need to be developed to begin this study, we can infer from past research the steps in which determination of these relationships could be done.
Eliminating the cancer stem cells that are responsible for tumor growth could potentially cure a patient. Leaving the cancer stem cells and simply destroying the tumor is not beneficial. Having a clear understanding of how cancer stem cells elude therapies can also lead to more effective cancer treatments.
The APCs then activate B cells and T cells. The B cells differentiate into plasma cells and secrete antibodies that bind to the tumor cell and mark them for elimination ( a humoral immune response). When T cells are activated they proliferate and undergo expansion, seek out, and destroy cells bearing the specific tumor antigens ( a cellular immune response). Sometimes your immune response does not destroy all of the cancer cells and this r... ... middle of paper ... ...y may be another area of research that may enhance anti-tumor activity. Creating better antibodies, like rituximab and others we are able to better target the tumor cell.