Your search returned over 400 essays for "european history"
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Meeting the Demand for Clergy in Victorian England

- Meeting the Demand for Clergy in Victorian England   Many new changes came to Victorian England as a result of the age of industrialization. Where there were once small country parishes, manufacturing towns were springing up. One change resulting from industrialization was the shortage of clergy to fill the new parishes in these towns. These new parishes reflect the demographic changes of the English countryside. Rural villages grew into booming towns. Where a single parish was once sufficient, there was now a need for multiple parishes....   [tags: European History]

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German Renaissance and Its Influence on Austrian Culture

- The German renaissance took place during the sixteenth century in Europe. The Renaissance was a time of discovery and learning. The word "renaissance" means rebirth or revival. The German renaissance inspired just that, a revival and rebirth of education and art. The people of Europe became interested in art and music during the renaissance. Education was also changing as the people became more interested in sciences and philosophy. German art work from this time period was dominated by local and independent schools....   [tags: European History]

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Racism in the British Military in Rich Relations

- Being a Negro in Great Britain was not too much different than being a negroe in the U.S. north of the Mason Dixon line. In the U.S. blacks were at the bottom of the social barrel. Although they had been given the right to vote by the 15th Amendment, literacy tests and poll taxes were still being practiced as a method to keep blacks from voting (this happened mainly in the South). In the U.S. Army blacks were "second class citizens" (81). Forming only 1.5% of the Army and 2.3% of the Navy, blacks were all together barred from even joining the Air Corps ....   [tags: European History]

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Hitler's Early Success in Dealing with Political Opponents

- Hitler was the leader of the NSDAP, and was appointed Chancellor of Germany on 30th January 1933. He had many opponents, both internal; such as Von Papen, Schleicher, and Hindenburg; and external such as other political parties and groups like Industrialists and Big Business. Between 1933 and 1934, the main groups opposing Hitler were more political, but by 1938, his only worries were elitist groups. Hitler used violence with a great degree of success in order to deal with his political opponents....   [tags: European History]

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The Rise and Fall of the Roman Republic

- The roman republic came into existence at the termination of the Roman kingship in 507 B.C.E. The last king of Rome, Tarquin the Proud, was expelled by Collatinus and Brutus, as a result of his arrogance involving the matter of one of his relations raping the wholesome Roman matron Lucretia and her subsequent suicide. The rape of Lucretia was really a representation of the frustration that the roman citizens felt regarding the kingship. The later kings had little regard for roman values and the roman populus, which they used as something of a slave labor force....   [tags: European History]

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The Value of Currency in Eighteenth Century England

- The Value of Currency in Eighteenth Century England For most of the eighteenth century, a shilling a day was a fair wage for most workers. Highly skilled workmen naturally made more; unskilled laborers and farm workers fared somewhat less favorably. One shilling would take home "5 Ibs.. of meat or four rabbits, 3 quarts of strong ale, or 6 gallons of 'middling' beer" (Mays 6). M. Dorothy George relates that the cheapest theatre seat, in the top gallery, was about a shilling. And the "weekly rent of a miserable London attic, ready furnished" might be 1 shilling six pence" (George Hogarth 51 n)....   [tags: European History]

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Victorian Men and Women's Fears of Educating Women

- Victorian fears of educating women were addressed in Martha Vicinus' novel, Independent Women. However I think that one very important issue not discussed in by Vicinus was the joint and separate fears of men and women of educating women. I also think that these fears were not realized entirely in her book and during the Victorian period. In order to determine if their fears were realized we need to look at the individual fears and also apply whose fears they were. I will examine the three view points that I think had the greatest fears and realizations of educating women; men and women together, then men and women's separate fears....   [tags: European History]

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Welfare `amendments' (`1832-1948) Address the Problem of Poverty

- From 1832 - 1948 successive governments introduced a series of Welfare `Amendments' which undoubtedly addressed the problem of poverty. This can be proved by analysing 4 significant periods between these times. First of all there was the Poor Law Amendment Act which was introduced by the Whig government. This was designed to investigate in which poor relief was being granted. The later 19th century saw the introduction of various Public Health Acts by the Conservative government. These had a great impact on poverty as it improved housing and public health....   [tags: European History]

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Economical Drain on Merthyr - the Merthyr Rising

- During the late 18th and early 19th century if a Welshman wanted to rent farmland, he would have to pay his rent money to an English landlord. By the time of the Rising the farmland was run on an annual tenancy agreement. Having only one year to harvest enough crops for the next year's rent, and very rarely succeeding, they would end up in debt. To add to the problem of debt, the money was collected not by the absentee landowner but by debt collectors who would most likely have scared the farmers into giving up the rent....   [tags: European History]

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19th Century Tension between Science and Religion

- Wallace and Darwin grew up on opposite sides of the track. Wallace's youth was spent amongst the abject poverty of the rural Welsh. These were the people furnishing the likes of Darwin (a Cambridge graduate, and the son of a doctor,) with taxes and tithings whilst they could barely put food on their own table. This gave rise to Wallace's socialist political values. It also influenced his attitude towards science. "This land (Wales,) equipped Wallace with the basic skills of insights he would need for a career in science." (A103 TV16"Wallace in Wales.") Where Darwin perceived native people from other lands as "barbarians," Wallace was less negative, seeing in these people more positive attri...   [tags: European History]

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Candide: a Heroic Diatribe of French Institutions

- Francois-Marie d'Arouet, the author known as Voltaire, was perhaps the most influential philosopher of the eighteenth century; he was the most widely read philosopher of the Enlightenment and his criticisms of powerful French institutions seeded the resistance to orthodoxy imbued in the French Revolution that occurred eleven years after his death in seventeen seventy-eight. The Renaissance instilled in Voltaire the virtues of science and a respect for the natural world that forced him to examine the institutions of France from an objective eye....   [tags: European History]

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Changes in Education in Britain since 1944

- The Education system of England and Wales underwent a number of important changes since 1944. This essay seeks to concentrate on these major changes describing the rationale and impact they had on the British education system. The essay will commence by focusing on the1944 Education Act, as it was "the most important piece of educational legislation since 1902" (Gosden, 1983:3). There was a great need for this Act, because the Second World War caused considerable disruption to the educational system....   [tags: European History]

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The Impact of Restoration Comedy on Theatre

- The Impact of Restoration Comedy on Theatre Shortly after the glory days of Elizabethan and Jacobean theatre, a Puritanical movement led by Oliver Cromwell gained control of Parliament. Cromwell ethics did not extend to cover the moral extravagance of theatre. Under the guise of public health and safety, Parliament ordered the closing of all theatres on September 2, 1642. Such dirty public areas were the perfect breeding ground for the spreading of plague. Actors were left with two options, join Charles I in the civil war against Cromwell, or defy the law and continue performing....   [tags: European History]

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Knights and Thier Role In Medieval Society

- Knights and their role in medieval society. Knights were an integral part of medieval society. They originally began with primitive warriors such as the Mongols who fought on horseback for added speed and power, but quickly advanced to chivalrous gentleman such as the Normans. Much has been written about medieval knights with the most famous being a series of legends about King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table. Arthur and his knights were the ultimate example of what a perfect knight should have been....   [tags: European History]

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How Powerful Was Hitler as a Dictator?

- Commentators on the Third Reich tend to be divided into two groups: the Intentionalists and the Structuralists. The former emphasize that all essential political decisions were taken by Hitler, being the prime coordinator in domestic and foreign policy, essentially equating Nazism with Hitlerism. The latter emphasize the limitations on Hitler's freedom of action as a result of forces operating within the State. They argue that, under Hitler, Nazi Germany suffered from a leadership crisis. Preferring not to side so rigidly with either perspective, I rather, agree certain aspects from each commentary....   [tags: European History]

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Changes in Great Britain: Mill v. Carlyle

- Britain in the nineteenth century was experiencing a growth, a movement, and a change. Along with change came prosperity, wealth, and support. However, along with the good came the negative. The negative was the people who were traditional. They did not want change because they liked their world the way it was. One of these people was Thomas Carlyle. He was tremendously pessimistic towards the change of the nineteenth century and he wrote an essay titled The "Mechanical Age" explaining why. His former friend, a supporter of change, John Stuart Mill also wrote a paper....   [tags: European History]

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The Importance of the "Guide of Reason"

- The Importance of the "Guide of Reason" The "guide of reason" is a concept from the Renaissance period that is used to describe the need of the people from this specific time period to have their questions answered about certain issues such as their connection with God and what their place was in the world or even the universe. The "guide of reason" is another way of saying keeping order by creating structures within society that everyone can and will follow. The "guide of reason" was an important concept during the Renaissance period and was a key factor in the lifestyles of people in the early sixteenth to the late seventeenth centuries....   [tags: European History]

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Economic Depression and Hitler's Rise to Power

- Economics Depression and Hitler's Rise to Power The economic depression 1923 & 1929, contributed to Hitler's rise to power in many ways. The first thing that led to the economic crisis was when the German economy collapsed, as a result of the depression and low employment. This was a result of the Treaty of Versailles that forced Germany to pay reparations to the allies. The German people protested that it was an intolerable strain on the economy, but the German government ignored it....   [tags: European History]

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Early Western Civilization in the 18th century

- Early western civilization just following the feudal period was a very interesting time in Europe. There were many new innovations and problems in the way of life of the people of that time. Agriculture was still the main occupation of the time for most people. Two big problems that the people faced were those of war and poor harvest. It was said that perhaps the largest problem was the problem with poor grain. For the majority of people there was also the problem of land. For these people they either had no land of their own or insufficient amounts of it to support a family even when times were good....   [tags: European History]

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Anti-Conquest: Civilization’s would-be Savior

- Anti-Conquest: Civilization’s would-be Savior Starting with the publication of Sir Isaac Newton’s Principia Mathematica, Europe thought of itself as a supremely rational people who could ultimately conquer the world around them with nothing more than the vaulting powers of their own reason. Indeed, this attitude would dominate European thought for centuries. Working under this ethos, Europe built up a massive colonial empire and realized the dream that was global hegemony. In many tangible ways, the road to this massive global empire was paved by European science in the form of the naturalist movement of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries....   [tags: Europe European History Essays]

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Compare and Contrast Locke and Rousseau

- Compare and Contrast Locke and Rousseau The turmoil of the 1600's and the desire for more fair forms of government combined to set the stage for new ideas about sovereignty. Locke wrote many influential political pieces, such as The Second Treatise of Government, which included the proposal for a legislative branch of government that would be selected by the people. Rousseau supported a direct form of democracy in which the people control the sovereignty. (how would the people control the sovereignty??) Sovereignty is the supremacy or authority of rule....   [tags: European History]

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The Emergence of the Chartist Movement

- The "People's Charter," drafted in 1838 by William Lovett and Francis Place was at the heart of a radical campaign for parliamentary reform of the inequity remaining after the Reform Act of 1832. The charter contained six points that were to be presented to parliament, these where: <ol> <li value="1"> Universal Suffrage <li value="2"> No Property qualifications <li value="3"> Annual Parliaments <li value="4"> Equal representation (constituencies of equal size) <li value="5"> Payment of members <li value="6"> Vote by ballot </ol> Two national petitions incorporating the six points above were presented to parliament in May 1839 and May 1842, the first signed by 1.3 million people and th...   [tags: European History]

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Nazi Politics: A Work of Art

- National Socialism achieved its zenith in Germany's Third Reich under Adolf Hitler. Hitler and the Nazi Party essentially turned politics into an art by using, and indeed abusing, power to benefit themselves in any possible way. Hitler sought perfection in his regime and attempted to achieve it through organization and assimilation of the volk, dealing swiftly and affectively with opposition, thus not allowing alternatives to the regime, and by emphasizing discipline and a chain of command." Through Hitler and the Nazi Party's efforts, politics in the Third Reich were turned into work of art....   [tags: European History]

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The Fall of the Roman Empire

- There are many reasons for the fall of the Roman Empire, and all of them are related to one another. The Christian religion that was adopted by the Romans made them more passive people than before, which in turn made it difficult against attackers. Money was being used for lavish parties for the governs which could have been used for the people. The people became lazy and glutinous and didn't care about the republic. First the morals and values of the people were at a rapid decline towards the end of their empire....   [tags: European History]

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Fascism in Post World War Italy

- In the years immediately after the First World War, a promising new era of democracy seemed to be unfolding. The autocratic regimes in Russia, Germany and Austria, were all overthrown and replaced by republics. The seven newly created states in Europe all adopted the republican form of government. Democracy seemed triumphant in the post-war world. Yet within two decades, many democratic countries in Europe were taken over by some kind of dictatorship. Italy became a fascist state. Italy achieved her unification in 1870....   [tags: European History]

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Notes on the Rise Of Nazis

- o Anti-Semitism which grew during that period of depression and from the racial theories of the time o Radical right-wing politics (i.e.: Pan-German League) in favor of authoritarianism. From its founding to the putsch of 1923: o Founded during the chaotic period immediately after WWI. Bavaria was then under the control of a right wing Gov. which sheltered extremists (including the Nazis) o Formed Jan. 9th 1919 under the name German Workers Party (DAP), Hitler joined as propaganda chief in Sept....   [tags: European History]

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Bloody Sunday: What Really Happened?

- On the 30th of January 197213 Catholics were killed by British Paratroopers on the streets of Londonderry. It was the result of an illegal but originally peaceful march led by the NICRA the civil rights movement. The march attracted 15000 people all for a similar cause, to ban Internment. The day became known as Bloody Sunday because of the terrible events that took place. Although the details of what actually happened remain undecided, because of the controversial views of the people that took part in the march....   [tags: British History, European History, Catholic]

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Terror and the French Revolution

- Essay: Terror and the French Revolution “Liberty, equality, fraternity, or death, - the last, much the easiest to bestow, O Guillotine!” ― Charles Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities On the evening of the 14th of July 1989 1.5 million people from 17 different countries gathered along the Champs-Elysees to celebrate Bastilles Day , the anniversary of the French Revolution which had occurred two hundred years before. But what were the French celebrating, the capture of Bastille and the deaths of ninety eight people through a violent uprising ....   [tags: french history, war, european history]

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Progress During Medieval Times

- Have you ever wondered about the kings and queens of the Middle age. Did you ever dream about being the shiny night or the beautiful princess. Another great question is what events occurred to cause the disappearance of such characters and traditions. Well, in order for a society to progress, change is a necessity. Events that occurred in the Middle Ages led to changes in medieval society throughout Europe. These changes can be categorized as social, economical, and political. An important event that contributed to social change in the medieval period was the life of Joan of Arc....   [tags: european history, middle ages]

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The British Agricultural Revolution

- Throughout the late middle ages, and beyond, England was a relatively stable, prosperous nation, largely free from the petty conflicts and power struggles of the majority of Western Europe. This was due to a multitude of factors which impacted the nobility, but only one which really impacted the general populace: a stable, steady food supply. How was this possible. Again, it can be attributed to a multitude of factors, but I believe one stands out above the rest: the multitude of unique individuals, including such luminaries as Jethro Tull, who introduced new agricultural methods to Britain, which, of course, increased crop yields, and therefore advanced the general health, stability, and tr...   [tags: European history, innovations]

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The Horrors of World War II Depicted in Literary Works of Twentieth Century Writers

- World War II had many effects in the middle of the twentieth century. Included are the emotional and psychological effects on those who wrote literary works and used their experiences as subjects to write about. Such are the cases of Italian writers who saw to the deepest extents the effects of WWII in Italy. Twentieth century Europe has been for many people a time of great turmoil and destruction. Two world wars have impacted the lives of many, and the events in the war have been the source of inspiration for great writers....   [tags: world war II, european history]

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Prostitution in 18th Century England

- Prostitution in 18th Century England "Miss B____rn. No. l 8 Old Compton Street, Soho Close in the arms she languishingly lies With dying looks, short breath, and wishing eyes. This accomplished nymph has just attained her eighteenth year, and fraught with every perfection, enters a volunteer in the field of Venus. She plays on the pianofort, sings, dances, and is mistress of every Maneuver in the amorous contest that can enhance the coming pleasure; is of the middle stature, fine auburn hair, dark eyes and very inviting countenance, which ever seems to beam delight and love....   [tags: European History]

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Weddings of the Middle Ages

- Weddings of the Middle Ages As the ages have past weddings have changed, the most interesting weddings took place in the middle ages. Middle ages were full of mystery and lust, women were not merely wives but prizes and a possession, rarely was it love. The reasons of which people were married was determined by their class. Most of the marriage laws we know today evolved during this era. The celebrations were extravagant, full of color and magnificent entertainment and exquisite feasts, radical compared to prior ages....   [tags: European History]

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Scientific Developments During the Renaissance

- Scientific Developments During the Renaissance Historians often refer to the renaissance as a Scientific Revolution. It was during this period that Nicolas Copernicus first suggested the revolution of the Earth around the Sun. This was groundbreaking, as previous to this it was generally thought that the Earth was stationary, and all the planets, including the Sun, orbited the Earth. It was also Copernicus' theory that directly led to the discoveries of Kepler, Galileo and Newton. It could therefore be argued that Copernicus' discovery was the most important of the Renaissance....   [tags: European History]

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British Welfare Reforms Between 1880-1914

- After 1880 reforms were being introduced that began to improve Britain, many in particular by the Liberals from 1906 onwards. However was this happening for the benefit of the people and their humanitarian needs or was it just a tactical motive for those who were introducing the reforms. During this period the condition of much of Britain was incredibly poor and something desperately needed to be done. Reforms such as extending the franchise in 1884-85 meant a process was beginning that gave a larger majority a voice as to who ran the country but not as to what actually happened....   [tags: European History]

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18th Century, Period of Enlightenment

- The Enlightenment took place during the 18th century and was defined as "man's leaving his self-caused immaturity." A popular motto took place: "dare to know." It was a period of questioning and appliance of reasoning to explore many subjects often left untouched. People were leaving behind their past and advocating the use of scientific method instead of unproven beliefs on religion. The Enlightenment takes its name from those who wanted to contribute to a brighter future and society. Different paths were taken in order to make this period possible....   [tags: European History]

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Wagner: The Artist and Reformer

- Wagner: The Artist and Reformer Born in 1813 in Leipzig, Germany, Richard (Wilhelm) Wagner was destine to work in the arts. His father died while Wagner was still an infant and his mother, an actress, remarried Ludwig Geyer, an actor, singer, author, portrait painter, and an old friend of her late husband (Henderson, 1923, 3). Wagner would go on to become one of the key figures in the development of the opera. Through his reform, Wagner was largely responsible for altering the course of the opera in the Nineteenth Century....   [tags: European History]

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Marriage in 18th Century Europe

- Marriage in 18th Century Europe The major movement regarding marriage in the eighteenth century was from church to state. Marital laws and customs, once administered and governed by the church, increasingly came to be controlled by legislators who passed many laws restricting the circumstances and legality of marriages. These restrictions tended to represent the interests of the wealthy and uphold patriarchal tradition. Backlash to these restrictions produced a number of undesirable practices, including promiscuity, wife-sale, and divorce....   [tags: European History]

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Homosexuality in Eighteenth Century England

- Though same-sex relationships have been a prominent aspect of many cultures almost since the beginning of time, there has historically been a significant taboo surrounding the phenomenon in the Western world. "From the Fourteenth Century on, Western Europe was gripped by a rabid and obsessive negative preoccupation with homosexuality as the most horrible of sins" (Boswell 262). The majority of people did not understand or accept the idea, and consequentially did not have an appropriate way of talking about it....   [tags: European History]

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The Wall Came Tumbling Down

- The Berlin wall was a symbol of life behind the Iron Curtain for nearly 28 years. It was a rigorously guarded barrier to keep citizens of East Germany under the Communist German Democratic Republic. In The Fall of the Berlin Wall, William F. Buckley Jr. details the events leading to the construction of the Berlin Wall, and the effects the wall and it's demise had on the people of Berlin, the other Eastern Bloc countries, and the rest of the world. After the second World War, the 1945 Yalta Conference determined the fate of Germany....   [tags: European History]

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Christianity & the Roman Empire

- The Success of Christianity in the Roman Empire The Roman Empire, before Christianity, was a polytheistic culture. There were many gods and goddesses that were worshiped for different reasons. Even small communities within the Roman Empire recognized their own deities along with the more popular gods and goddesses. As time progressed, Roman Emperors were soon included with the polytheistic worship. Julius Caesar himself claimed to be a descendant of Venus, the sun god. Because Caesar was so popular, the idea of worshiping Emperors grew and was followed after his death....   [tags: European History]

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Spain: Then and Now

- The Mediterranean peoples were aware of Spain from very early times. Civilization in Spain actually dates back to the Stone Age. There were many people who inhabited Spain most notably the Basques. Later the Carthaginians settled on the east coast and in the Balearic Islands, where Greek colonies also sprang up. In the 3d century BC, the Carthaginians under Hamilcar Barca began to conquer most of the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearics and established Cartagena as capital. In the Punic war the Roman army defeats Hannibal and the Carthaginian Empire is inhibited....   [tags: European History]

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The Myth of Rescue

- "The Myth of Rescue" by William Rubinstein has no doubt been one of the most attacked books by reviewers on this matter of the Holocaust. Rubinstein disagrees with the idea that some scholars supported, that the allies could have done much more to help the Jews, and explains why it was so difficult to assist them. Rubinstein's construction of the situation faced by the Jews of Nazi occupied Europe demonstrates some coherent and thoughtful points about the period of the slaughter of the Jews. His arguments in opposition to the suggestion made by the different scholars were based on the following facts....   [tags: European History]

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To What Extent World War I Affected the Armenian Genocide

- A. Plan of Investigation The beginning of World War I marked the commencement of the bloodiest war in history, thus far. With this in mind, it is fitting that the bloodiest genocide in history besides the German Holocaust began as well, the Armenian genocide. This examination evaluates to what extent World War I affected the Armenian Genocide. To comprehend how World War I influenced the Armenian Genocide, research has been conducted to explore; World War I’s contribution towards the severity of the Armenian Genocide’s causalities, foreign aid, and how the genocide was reported to the world....   [tags: modern European history, human atrocities]

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D-DAY: The Events and Outcome of the Normandy Invasion

- Europe was completely conquered by the Nazis. At the start of World War Two, Hitler made most of Europe into his Nazi fortress. Hitler, by 1941, controlled all of Europe with the exception of Britain. Hitler sent hundreds of bombers to bomb Great Britain in an attempt to force them to surrender. The Nazis killed thousands and thousands of innocent civilians. The killings of these innocent civilians angered the Brits and motivated to not give into Hitler’s hands. In fact, the brave British pilots finally drove the bombers back to Germany....   [tags: world war II, european history]

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The Black Plague

- If there is one part of life that humans have trouble overcoming it is natural disasters. They are unexpected, incurable, and often unconquerable. One specific type of natural disaster is that of sickness. Plagues are disastrous evil afflictions of an epidemic disease causing a high rate of mortality ( Merriam-Webster ). A historically famous plague in the fourteenth and fifteenth century is the Black or Bubonic Plague. The social and economic affects of the plague in Europe were detrimental to the population and economy....   [tags: European History]

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Christinaity In Middle Ages

- Christianity in the Middle Ages Christianity played a major role throughout the Middle Ages in society and politics. The Middle Ages, classified from 600 AD to 1350 AD, was significantly effected by Christianity because of the impact it had on the daily lives of people of the time. The beginning of the Early Middle Ages, after the Fall of Rome in 476 AD and the period known as the Dark Ages, the reorganization of the empire brought a desire for faith and religion, primarily Christianity. This trend of Christian importance was apparent until 1350, when the Black Death caused the end of a systematized era....   [tags: European History]

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Elizabethan Food & Dining

- Elizabethan Food & Dining For the well-to-do, eating during the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods was a fancy affair. A king or queen when going abroad could expect banquet tables filled with hundreds of dishes--for just one meal. There was much pageantry and entertainment. At Leicester, Queen Elizabeth I (predecessor of King James VI & I) was greeted with a pageant of welcome displayed on a temporary bridge. There were cages of live birds--bitterns, curlews, hernshaws and godwits. One pillar held great silver bowls piled with apples, pears, cherries, walnuts and filberts....   [tags: European History]

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Rousseau's View of Humanity

- Jean Jacques Rousseau in On Education writes about how to properly raise and educate a child. Rousseau's opinion is based on his own upbringing and lack of formal education at a young age. Rousseau depicts humanity as naturally good and becomes evil because humans tamper with nature, their greatest deficiency, but also possess the ability to transform into self-reliant individuals. Because of the context of the time, it can be seen that Rousseau was influenced by the idea of self-preservation, individual freedom, and the Enlightenment, which concerned the operation of reason, and the idea of human progress....   [tags: European History]

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Hitler's Rise to Power

- The 1900's marked was one of the most consequential periods of time as it marked the onset of Nazi ideology, an ideology that would be advocated by radical leaders such as Adolf Hitler to maintain power of Germany. Hitler would use National Socialism, which renounced Marxist ideals, as a basis to formulate his own basic views of a philosophy which he would bolster for the rest of his life. As a strong anti-Semite, and an ardent German nationalist, Hitler recognized the importance in the need for struggle and "emphasized a crude Social Darwinism; the world was a brutal place filled with constant struggle in which only the fit survived" (Spielvogel 794)....   [tags: European History]

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The British Welfare State

- The idea behind the welfare state was to relieve poverty, reduce inequality, and achieve greater social integration and solidarity, and in Britain these aims were sorely wanted after world war two . This desire for the welfare state was rooted in many causes. To fully understand these cause we have to start out not at the 1941 beginnings of the large scale welfare state but to 1598. One of the main motivating factors behind this desire towards a welfare state was the universal hatred of the so called "Poor laws." These were a series of laws governing aid (feeding, education, and health) to the poorest of society....   [tags: European History]

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17th Century English Mercantilism

- Mercantilism Essay England in the 17th century adopted the policy of mercantilism, exercising control over the trade of the colonies, thus greatly affecting their political and economical development. Mercantilism was the policy in Europe throughout the 1500's to the 1700's where the government of the mother country controlled the industry and trade of other, weaker settlements with the idea that national strength and economic security comes from exporting more than what is imported. Possession of colonies provided the countries with sources of raw materials and markets for their manufactured goods....   [tags: European History]

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Saint Joan of Arc

- Saint Joan of Arc Joan of Arc is a name that brings out many emotions. When her name is spoken it inspires hope, it strengthens courage; fosters anger, and it draws hatred. Joan of Arc was a name that was meant to be forgotten and wiped from existence, yet like her heart which did not burn in the fire, her memory has withstood the tests of time and she is respected today as one of the most amazing human beings who ever lived. Obviously, then, Joan has been translated to film, time and time again, and yet so many times misrepresented....   [tags: European History]

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The Hundred Years War

- The Hundred Years War The Hundred Years’ War was a war between England and France in which France defended its’ crown against British rule. This war had a great impact on the people of each country. The origin of the war goes back to the conquest of William for England. In 1066 William, the Duke of Normandy, led an army into England. He won this battle and became the king of England. This was possible under feudalism. Feudalism is a form of social classification in which the members of an upper class are granted fifes, or pieces of land, by higher ranking noblemen return for their military service....   [tags: European History]

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UK Local Government Boards

- Though it was noticeable that from the time of 1847 to 1871 (when the Poor Law was in action), there was less of a scandal and controversy, by 1867, when many received the vote, government were again concerned for the people's welfare. One criticism supporting this is that although under the Poor Law Board the management had changed, the system itself had not. Hence, in 1871 the Local Government Board was created, following the recommendation of the Royal Commission. This was a new legislation affecting housing and public health; hence it took over responsibility for byelaws relating to town improvements, markets, police and tramways additionally to distributing welfare to the sick and ne...   [tags: European History]

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Holocaust: Hitler's Final Solution

- Some would venture to state Adolf Hitler was just a mad man with a chip on his shoulder for the Jews, but he had the inspiration for the deed well before "The Final Solution." The first of these inspirations was the Jewish legends that were told throughout Europe. They covered many different stories, but the overwhelming theme was the carelessness and vile of the Jewish people towards Christians. Most of the tales concerned Christians that sold their children to the Jews in exchange for money, and the Jews sacrificing the child they had just bought like devils, but the most prominent legend is that of the "Wandering Jew." It was also said to be told throughout Germany....   [tags: European History]

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Securing the Castilian Throne

- To suggest that Isabella was successful from the outset in securing the Castilian crown and the support of its people would be a foolish interpretation. It took ten years before she was fully accepted as rightful ruler, during which time a number of important factors developed that today can be seen as the clearest reasons for her success. Paramount among these was her determined, intellectual and shrewd personality and character. Without these traits, the other factors would have been irrelevant....   [tags: European History]

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How England Was Conquered

- A new king was needed in England in 1066 because Edward the Confessor had died. He didn't have a son but he had a nephew who was too young to rule, as he was only eight. There were three claimants who wanted to rule. William Duke of Normandy said Edward had promised to name him as a successor. He also said Harold had made an oath promising to help him become king. He also had the support of the Pope. Another of the claimants who wanted to rule was Harold Godwinson, Earl of Wessex, because his sister was married to Edward....   [tags: European History]

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Dbq: Ancient Greek Contributions

- DBQ: ANCIENT GREEK CONTRIBUTIONS The Ancient Greek contribution ranged by the 1900-133 BC, however its influence on the Western Literate Society lasts to this day. As the Greeks expanded their empire, they spread their ideas to other countries, while also borrowing from other cultures. During this period of time, the Greeks made many significant and long-lasting contribution to our modern culture in Philosophy, Art, Democracy, Drama, Math, and Science. These givings of important ideas, inventions, and structures have had an extraordinary influence on the surrounding environment, society, and in the future....   [tags: European History]

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Slavery In Ancient Rome

- Ephesians 4:1-6 states, "As a prisoner for the Lord, then, I urge you to live a life worthy of the calling you have received. Be completely humble and gentle; be patient, bearing with one another in love. Make every effort to keep the unity of the Spirit through the bond of the peace. There is one body and one Spirit "just as you were called to one hope just as you were called to one Lord, one faith, one baptism; one God and Father of all, who is the over all and through all and in all". This scripture is so powerful, yet so simple....   [tags: European History]

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Witch Crazy

- In England, during the 15th and 16th centuries, the previously underground and ignored practice of witchcraft became an offense that was punishable by death. Women were the majority of the citizens who were tried for the crime of witchcraft. The belief that they were given their supernatural powers by the devil and aimed to crush all Christian values and people caused their excessive persecution.1 This paper will explain why most individuals accused of witchcraft in England were women and will be backed by primary sources from a variety of historical individuals and also secondary sources from various historical backgrounds....   [tags: European History ]

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Impact of the Industrialization Era (Great Britain and United States)

- The industrialization era is one of the most important and wonderful events that have occurred in the past 400 years. Industrialization has had an over all ripple effect upon the world. “Industrialization led to a better quality of life for most people” (Beck, 723). While it may seem to some that Industrialization only impacted Great Britain, it is actually true that industrialization many characteristics and consequences that had a worldwide impact. Industrialization had its up’s and down’s such as economic prosperity, jobs, and innovation....   [tags: british history, industrialize, european history]

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Exploring Reasons the French Revolution Turned to Terror

- There are three important and distinct reasons for the French Revolution changing from being about the people to a revolution run by fear and terror. The first was the lack of tradition of a republican rule within France. The revolutionaries were simply not experienced enough in running and managing political parties. The second reason was the constantly growing power of the counter revolutionaries. The third reason was due to the ongoing wars with other countries. All these three reasons were the main contributors for making the revolutionaries go from prioritizing freedom, liberty and brotherhood to a state of total chaos and terror....   [tags: war, European history, France history,]

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The French Revolution

- The French Revolution The French Revolution was one of the most traumatic events in human history. Over seven million people may have died as a result. The immediate reason was the financial crisis caused by French support for the American Revolution. France invested 2 billion pieces of silver to win the war. Her tax system could only support the government during peace. A war called for extraordinary measures. This was the beginning of the first phase of the revolution, which is referred to as the Aristocratic Revolution....   [tags: European History]

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The Spanish Inquisition

- The Spanish Inquisition The word “inquisition” means to examine. Inquisitors would “examine” suspected Heretics, people whose ideas do not match those of the Roman Catholic Church, and punish them accordingly. This included torture and burning. The great inquisition movement that took place in Spain, or Hispania as it was called before Spain united. It was called The Spanish Inquisition. It took place for approximately five hundred years, from the late 15th century to mid 19th century. Many ironic elements were involved in the history of the Inquisition....   [tags: European History]

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The Suez Canal

- The Suez Canal was a construction of a canal to make routes shorter. More importantly the canal was a construction of many dreams, profits, and the unification of the West and the East. Lesseps and his companions began to embark on a journey with a great dream in mind. In his book Parting the Desert, Karabell not only shows the history of the construction of the Suez Canal and the unification of East and West, however also shows the destruction of many countries' hopes and dreams Lesseps main mission was to change the political landscapes of three continents through the building of the Suez Canal....   [tags: European History]

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Voltaire Vs. Hampson

- The enlightenment was a period in history where certain ways of thought were developed. There were doubts of the existence of a supreme being and belief in the natural order of things. "The stability of a divinely-created and unchanging order was challenged by a new conception of life as a constant and shapeless flux" (89). Norman Hampson analyzes many famous philosophical books of the time and overall feels that "Only two attitudes seemed to remain: to follow Hume in denying man's access to objective knowledge of any kind, or to accept d'Holbach's conception of a universe of matter in motion, in which everything happened out of necessity and the answer to every question was `because it cann...   [tags: European History]

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Fourteenth Century Crises

- The 14th century is ranked as one of the most distressing epochs in the history of Western culture. With the transformation of the Holy Roman Empire into a greatly destabilized elective monarchy, the transfer in political power from Germany to France and the escalation of England's power comes the end of the High Middle Ages in which Europe sank into a time of despair. Many events were responsible for this decline and loss of hope. Among them, three deserve special attention: the Great Schism, the Hundred Years War, and the Black Plague....   [tags: European History]

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The French Revolution

- The later 18th century was a time of crisis for the old regimes of Europe and their economic systems and political agitation sometimes breaking out into revolts. English Industrial Revolution vaulted Britain to the fore. France was the most powerful and the most typical of the old aristocratic absolute monarchies of Europe. (lower taxes off backs of lower classes). Major inequities, inflation and lack of food, very minimal reforms, rising aspirations of middle classes -bourgeoise. Among 23 million Frenchmen, there were 400,000 who formed the nobility -and army officers and clergy....   [tags: European History]

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Violence of Decolonization

- Violence of Decolonization Frantz Fanon argues the decolonization must always be a violent phenomenon because resisting a colonizing power using only politics will not work. Europeans justified colonization by treating it as gods work. They believed that god wanted then to occupy all lands and spread the word of god to savages of darker skin color. Fanon joined the Algerian Nationalist Movement when the Algeria was being colonized be the French. Many examples of violence written of in The Wretched of the Earth were taken from the struggle for independence in Algeria....   [tags: European History Colonies Essays]

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The Protestant Reformation

- The Protestant Reformation Introduction The Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century is one of the most complex movements in European history since the fall of the Roman Empire. The Reformation truly ends the Middle Ages and begins a new era in the history of Western Civilization. The Reformation ended the religious unity of Europe and ushered in 150 years of religious warfare. By the time the conflicts had ended, the political and social geography in the west had fundamentally changed....   [tags: European History Religion Papers]

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The Role of Religion in Italian, Greek, and Turkish Politics

- The Role of Religion in Italian, Greek, and Turkish Politics Problems with format Italy ?Prior to the mid-20th century, Catholicism was Italy's state religion; however, a new Constitution in 1947 changed this (2).. Article 7 of this Italian Constitution declares that the "State and Catholic Church are, each within their own reign, independent and sovereign" (9).. Articles 8 and 19 later provide freedom of religion for all Italian citizens (9).. However, most Italians continue to align themselves with the Catholic Church, as an estimated 85 percent are nominally Roman Catholic (2).....   [tags: European History Religious Papers]

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Sidney and Petrarch; Or, The Contemplation of Love

- Sidney and Petrarch; Or, The Contemplation of Love Tanto piu' di voi, quando piu' v'ama. Petrarca. The Renaissance reached its fulfilment in the sixteenth century. English, long neglected by the humanists' preoccupation with Greek and Latin, rose to a wholly new and conscious dignity as a medium of serious literary expression. That English should rise and attain the status of national language is not surprising in view of the fact that the spread of literacy and the introduction of printing, along with the increasingly strong nationalist feeling, did account for its consolidation.1 There was not only a steady progression towards developing a language of their own; English humanis...   [tags: Renaissance European History Essays]

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King Leopold II and Belgian Imperialism

- King Leopold II and Belgian Imperialism In 1865, King Leopold II succeeded his father to the thrown of Belgium and thus began one of the most brutal and insensitive periods of imperialism ever to exist. From manipulative treaties to straight forward intimidation, Leopold dominated his empire like no other. He was cruel, deceptive, and downright evil, yet it took the world over twenty years to recognize this. The record of King Leopold’s atrocity is an interesting account of how a jealous man could inflict some of the most disgusting forms of oppression upon his fellow members of the human race....   [tags: European History Essays]

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- History Manorialism was an economic system that existed in Western Europe from about 1050 to 1300 CE. Serfs who worked for a lord farmed large fields. The lord owned the fields and lived in a large manor house. He owned between a third and a half of all the crops. The serfs also had a part of the fields for themselves. Serfs couldn’t leave the manor and they had to give the lord a certain amount of their crops, but they could keep the surplus. The serfs lived together communally and worked the fields together using the three crop rotation....   [tags: Religion Western European History Essays]

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Europeans and Disease: Allies in Conquering Continents

- Europeans and Disease: Allies in Conquering Continents Chinese proverb claims that the rat is the most clever and strongest survivor of all animals. The rat proved itself in the beginning of time when god held a race for all of his animals; the rat was clever enough to hide in the ear of a large beast, and at the last second he leapt out of the beast's ear and crossed the finish line before the beast. Disease tells a similar history, in which it has been able to spread itself through out the entire world, through the naïve and unknowing help of humans and animals....   [tags: European Europe History]

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The Medieval Coroner

- The first coroners were appointed in 1194 by Richard I. He actually had sheriffs to represent his interests, but they were often corrupt. Furthermore, they embezzled shares of the taxes, so Richard I. decided to create a new office: the coroner. Their official task was to "keep the pleas of the Crown"; this included the investigation of sudden deaths, but also administrative duties. If a person died, the first one who found the body had to inform the Bailiff of the Hundred, who then had to notify the coroner....   [tags: European History]

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Thomas More's Utopia

- Throughout Thomas More's Utopia, he is able to successfully criticize many of the political, social, and economic ways of the time. His critique of feudalism and capitalism would eventually come back to haunt him, but would remain etched in stone forever. On July 6, 1535, by demand of King Henry VIII, More was beheaded for treason. His last words stood as his ultimate feeling about royalty in the 15th and 16th centuries, "The King's good servant, but God's first." Throughout his life, More spoke his beliefs about feudalism, capitalism, and his ideals of Utopia; More was a thinker, good friend of Erasmus, and although many critics take Utopia as a blueprint for society, in many instances he...   [tags: European History]

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Old Bailey Court

- Thursday May 17, 1750, between eight and nine o'clock John Bradnam was intending to go to bed, but first was gathering some money to pay his way the following day. He put nineteen guineas and one shilling into a purse, and then placed the purse into his pocket. Shortly afterwards he was called down. Bradnam returned to his room about half an hour later, and upon his return he found his pocket had been moved. After taking out his money and counting it, he realized he was missing two guineas. He then asked his maid, Elizabeth Rice, who had been in his room, she said she did not know....   [tags: European History]

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The Renaissance Prince

- The Renaissance, a revival of antiquity starting in Italy around the middle of the 14th century, had broad implications for the way western society would operate thereafter. It would no longer focus on the church and its dictates, although they would still play a part. It would no longer have its government seated in Rome, with small pawns of the church controlling the land, although the church would still have a hand in government. It would no longer shun the vast stores of knowledge created in the past and ignored for a thousand years, although opponents would remain....   [tags: European History]

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