All these states had to be bolished if Italy was to be re-united. In 1834, Garibaldi was ordered to seize a Warship, but the plot was dis... ... middle of paper ... ...nd the Papal States. In 1866, the government went to Garibaldi again. Italy had made an alliance with Prussia to defeat the Austrians. Italy was promised Veniceif the alliance was victorious.
The King of Piedmont was restored by Austrian troops, as was the Pope, reactionary policies were resumed in both these states. The Kingdom of Two Scillies signed a defensive alliance with Austria. This network effectively ensured Austrian domination of the Italian Penisular, as long as this existed the Risorgimento would stay a distant dream. Between 1815-31, Austria was led by its chancellor Prince Clemens Metternich. He created the Metternich system; this involved the repression of nationalism and liberalism within the sphere of Austrian influence and the creation of a network of alliances throughout Europe.
The Italian unification was brought by Camilo Di Cavour who was named the prime minister by Sardinia’s king Victor Emmanuel. Cavour was a man who worked hard and tirelessly to help expand Sardinia’s power. Cavour’s skillful diplomacy and excellent chose of alliance and set about gaining northern Italy for Sardinia. Cavour realized after a while that the road block was Austria. So in 1858 napoleon 3 agreed to help drive out Austria from Northern Italy.
He believed that the revolutions failed because the people in the Italian states had no strong nationalism. Therefore he spread nationalism throughout Italy. l Mazzini wanted to set up the Republic of Italy to unify Italy into one country and planned to revolt. He planned to attack Piedmont (the strongest, independent Italian state) through Switzerland. l Finally, he failed.
In the Italian version in Article XVII of the Treaty of Wichale made Rome Et... ... middle of paper ... ...nly thing left to do was to carry on and appear to have no knowledge of the horrors that were going on because the Nazi party was too far in the government. Hitler’s influence all of the world showed that the “Western Dominance” was now over. It was time for the Eastern Hemisphere to rule. Hitler also influenced Mussolini and Japan to annex countries of interest. In Italy there was a difference.
Before 1860 Italy was a collection of independent states controlled by other European powers or the rich noble families of the region. After Napoleon’s defeat in 1815, the Congress of Vienna split Italy into eight independent states with major influences from the surrounding powers of Spain, France and especially Austria. Uprisings against the state governments swept the country, but were suppressed by the Habsbergs1 in Northern Italy. This however, was soon to change. Giuseppe Mazzini, Count Camilo Benso Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi organized and inspired the people of Italy to unite and support a solid constitution which was not only key to unification but gave long term stability to Italy.
Those advantages where territorial... ... middle of paper ... ...ted to feel that the war could be a solution to the social, political and economical problems that they were enduring since the unification. However, the governement was still economically and militarely unprepared and had no time to persuade the Italians in this pacific way. Both the civil and military authorities used violence, coercion and repressive measures to recruit men from all over the country to join the army. Works Cited John A. Thayer, Italy and the Great War, (Madison and Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin Press, 1964), p.279 Gabrielle d'Annunzio, Discorso di Quarto, 04/05/1915 Antonio Gibelli, La Grande Guerra Degli Italiani 1915- 1918, ( BUR Biblioteca Universita Rizzoli, 2007), p.32 Pope Benedict 15, 1917. Telegram from Austro- Hungarian Ambassador, Von Merey, at Rome to Count Berchtold, 30 July 1914 in World War 1 Document Archives.
After Napoleon had been defeated in the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, the Congress of Vienna was held the same year under the control Foreign Minister Metternich's leadership. In this conference Austria was given control of the Italian states of Venetia and Lombardy, in compensation for her loss of Belgium. This led to the Germanisation and domination of Austria over the Italian states it had obtained. All schools were carefully censored, the press was rigidly controlled, and all this was supported by an efficient army of police spies. Without freedom of publication and of speech the fighters for freedom and national unity had no chance to occur.
Instead of a French ruling government, the Italian people wanted their own government (12, pg 75). The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen passed by the National Assembly in 1789 was the main foundations for a constitutional monarchy in France. Though warped and misled by the Jacobins of the National Convention within the period of the Reign of Terror, the French Directory allowed for neutrality between both ideas of government. Furthermore, the overthrow of the Directory allowed for the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte, who spread his ideas of nationalism across Europe, specifically through his Code, and evidently shown in the German and Italian states.
The Italian Wars The Italian Wars 1494-1559: - Introduction: The key issues over which the Italian Wars were fought were primarily financial incentives for Charles VIII of France. He declared that he intended to use Naples as a base to drive the Ottomans out of Europe and liberate Constantinople. In actual truth his main motivation was self-glory and the mouth-watering prospect of acquiring some exquisite prizes of war. On the way he would acquire rich cities and portable pieces of art. It seems that this invasion had been planned for two years prior since Charles had already bought off potential rivals like Henry VII of England, Ferdinand and Macsimilion.