Your search returned over 400 essays for "european history"
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Life and Legacy of Marie Antoinette

- Marie Antoinette Josèphe Jeanne de Habsbourg-Lorraine was born in the mid-eighteenth century as an archduchess and princess, to Maria Teresa, the Austrian Empress, at the very apex of the European hierarchal pyramid. She was an essential part to the oldest royal European house, as it became known that her sole duty in life was to unite the two great powers and long-term enemies of Austria-Hungary and France by marriage. She was brutally overthrown by her own starving people and portrayed to the world as a villain and abuser of power, whereas sympathy for the young queen should be shown....   [tags: biography, european history, royalty]

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Mongols Called the Tartars: Outsiders Beware

- Mongols Called the Tartars: Outsiders Beware. The Mongols, or as the Western Europeans called them, the Tartars, were a nomadic, militant people that dominated the battlefield during the pre-industrial time period (“Tartars” 7). Over the span of the 13th century, from the Central Asian steppes in the east to the Arabian lands to the west, the Tartars subdued the unfortunate inhabitants and expanded their empire vastly. To the fear and dismay of the Western Europeans, the Tartars desired to triumph over all of Eurasia; therefore, the Western Europeans were to be conquered next....   [tags: European history, Caprini]

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The Enlightment Caused the French Revolution

- Prior to the revolution, King Louis XVI was at the top of the ancien régime, the social, economic, and political structure in France, which means he had absolute power. When he received the throne in 1774, it came along with insoluble problems. The people were split into three estates which divided social class. The first estate consisted of 100,000 tax exempt nobles who owned 20% of the land. The second estate consisted of the 300,000 tax exempt clergy who owned 10% of the land. The third estate consisted of the remaining 23.5 million French people who were 90% peasants....   [tags: influential movements in European history]

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Terror in the French Revolution

- Was the Terror of 1793/4 inherent from the revolutions outset or was it the product of exceptional circumstance. In this essay I shall try to find whether the Terror was inherent from the French revolutions outset or was it the product of exceptional circumstances. The French revolution is the dividing line between the Ancien Regime and the modern world. After France the hierarchy that societies of the time had been founded on began to change and they began to sweep away the intricate political structures of absolute monarchy, but however to achieve this was the Terror absolutely necessary....   [tags: European History]

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The Geographic, Political, and Ethnic Impact European Colonialism Has Played on the Present History of Africa

- There is an ongoing debate on how the current political and economic failures in Africa can be traced back to the advent of colonialism. There is a great deal of evidence that illustrates the impact that colonialism and foreign intervention has had a negative effect on the development of present history of Africa. This essay will attempt to examine the geographic, political and ethnic impact European colonialism has played on the development of the African, and how these contributions have put Africa on its current trajectory....   [tags: Political Science]

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How the Justinian Plague Paved the Way to The Black Death

- During the fourteenth century, Europe faced one of the worst tragedies of its time. A mysterious plague claimed millions of lives, cutting Europe’s population into half of what it was. Historians today call this catastrophe the Black Death. Many people know little about the Black Death but to understand its significant role in history, one must know its early origins, rapid spread, painful symptoms, and devastating effects. The Black Death started its rage in the year 1347, but it is hard to know exactly where and how it originated (Dunn 12)....   [tags: the bubonic disease, European history]

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The Russian Revolution: A Turning Point for Communism

- The Russian Revolution was a turning point in history because it tried to use communism as its main principal. “Communism is the riddle of history solved, and it knows itself to be this solution” (Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels). In a communist society, everyone in that society receives equal shares of the benefits derived from labor. In a communist nation, there would be a classless society, and everyone would be happy to share their wealth. The government would own all means of production, and the government would redistribute the wealth from the rich to the poor....   [tags: Czar Nicholas, European history]

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Pope Innocent III's Great Impact on Medieval Society

- Pope Innocent III began a sequence of changes that influenced the face of secular and ecclesiastical Europe through careful use of law and political manipulation. It has been remarked that the papacy acquired and retained the most power under the leadership of Pope Innocent III during the late 12th and early 13th centuries. I plan to examine sources primarily pertaining to the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 and secondly to a collection of Innocent III’s papal letters. In my analysis, I hope to draw a correlation between Innocent III's actions and these actions influence on medieval society and why this period is considered to be the height of papal power since its inception....   [tags: european history, religion]

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The Achievements of Royal Navy Leader John Fisher

- “Hit first, hit hard, and keep on hitting”, this was Sir John’s Fisher policy, and it was the reason behind his success [Massie]. John Fisher was a British Admiral who was responsible for many great victories and great the great shift of the system of the Navy. The British Navy has been always been considered to be the strongest navy through the world history, and it has been successful since it was established. The Royal Navy was considered to have that position due to its advanced weapons, good machinery, powerful men, and most importantly the Admirals who led the fleet....   [tags: european history, biography]

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Was Napoleon Bonaparte a Hero or a Villain?

- ... He divided each army and defeated them separately. After the battle was over he said to his troops “soldiers, we thank you” and gave them their first real money in years. He gained a lot of ground for France and thus increased his national prestige. He made many good changes for France. One of the most important was he brought France out of the chaotic period of the Revolution. Without him the turmoil would have continued and France would be an entirely different country. Another significant thing he did was he created the Napoleonic Code....   [tags: influential leaders in European history]

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1362 words | (3.9 pages) | Preview

Differences Between Feudalism in Europe and Japan

- European feudalism was based on contract and Japanese feudalism was based on personal relationship with the lord and vassal. This helps prove that the differences between European and Japanese feudalism made limited government more likely to develop in the West because a contract limits what the lords and vassals could do. William, the king of English, said, “I command you [the vassal] to summon all those who are under your charge......and bring ready with you those five knights that you owe me[.]”1 This helps prove that European feudalism was based on contract because when you owe someone something, it implies an agreement....   [tags: government, European history, Japanese history]

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The Most Successful Absolute Monarch in Europe was Louis XIV of France

- Of all the absolute rulers in Europe, by far the best example of one, and the most powerful, was Louis XIV of France. Although Louis had some failures, he also had many successes. He controlled France’s money and had many different ways to get, as well as keep his power, and he knew how to delegate jobs to smart, but loyal people. According to the text book, an absolute monarch is a king or queen who has unlimited power and seeks to control all aspects of society (McDougall little, 1045). In more simple terms, it is a ruler who can do just about anything without having to get permission from anyone, or having to worry about the repercussions....   [tags: Monarchy, European History, French History]

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Examining the Possible Causes of the Cold War

- The causes of the Cold War and how it developed into one of the largest unarmed struggles in history have been subject to much debate and consequently a number of schools of thought have developed as to the origins of the Cold War. These proposed explanations to the causes of the Cold War have consisted of the orthodox, revisionist and post-revisionist theories. Each theory demonstrates a different viewpoint as to how a variety of political, economic and militaristic factors instigated the Cold War The Cold War was the political, social, economic and militaristic struggle between communism and capitalist participated in primarily by the communist Soviet Union and the capitalist USA and t...   [tags: american history, european history, communism]

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The Rennaisance

- The Renaissance was the rebirth of classical society for most of Europe. Renaissance is French for “Rebirth” and certainly was that, many people that lived during the Renaissance believed that they were witnessing the rebirth of classical antiquity, in other words, the world of the Greek’s and Romans. But it wasn’t only seen as a time of rebirth, it was also viewed as an age of recovery from the various setbacks that occurred during the Middle Ages including the Black Death, political disarray, and even an economic dilemma that stemmed from the brutal Hundred Years’ War that took place over the span of the Middle Ages between England and France....   [tags: European History]

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World War I - An Imbalance of Power

- In The Guns of August Barbara Touchman presents a vivid image of the events and causes that lead to the First World War. The multitudes of motives that become evident in her book imply that none of Waltz's three images was solely responsible for the outbreak of war. However, the image that best explains the origins of World War I is the anarchy of the international system. The internal structure of individual states and the nature of men are two images that considerably contributed to the war but should be considered in the broader context of European rivalries that took place in the vacuum of interstate relations....   [tags: European History]

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Changes in the Social and Political Fabric in 16th and 17th Century Europe

- The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were periods of questioning and searching for truth. The practice of challenging traditional institutions, including the Church, was revolutionary. Individuals began to use reason to guide their actions and opinions and realized the oppressive nature of the Catholic monarchy. Individuals strove to act in their own best interest and in the name of what was true to them. The consensus was that society would be better off with an economy that shifted away from agriculture, looked globally, and decreased monopolies and the importance of Guilds, as economic opportunities would surface for all classes of men....   [tags: European History]

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1120 words | (3.2 pages) | Preview

Elizabeth I's Role in the Success of the British Angelican Church

- `The Elizabethan Church Settlement succeeded in the years 1559-1566 because of Elizabeth I's vital role in its development'. Examine this view. Elizabeth came to the throne in November 1558 and faced a hugely complex religious situation. Her country was fractured into different religious groups, Protestant and Catholic. The Protestants were then further divided into the extent to which they wished reform to be taken. The Settlement aimed to find a way to bring these different lobbies together without alienating any and settle a blanket theology for the country....   [tags: European History]

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Battle of a Continent: the Plains of Abraham

- In the early 18th century, New France prospered in terms of population and agricultural production. After the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 which ended the War of the Spanish Succession, France was poised to make a decision at the bargaining table with the victor's of Britain. The contents of the cease fire also included the relinquishment of lands and France, who lost the war considerably, gave up Acadia and Île Ste. Jean only to keep the far eastern port of Louisbourg (Wikipedia, 2004). The habitant of New France heard of this and remained incognito for the moment, only to wait and see what Britain would do next....   [tags: European History]

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Religion and Commerce in Early Modern Europe

- Class discussions about religious history inevitably turn to the question of whether religious ideals throughout history remain absolute or are relative to the social, political and economic trends of the time. For example, students are sometimes disturbed to learn that in early Christian history, conversion was often in response to economic or political benefits rather than religious fervor. Naturally, at the Catholic prep school where I teach, students want to believe religious ideals and rhetoric are absolute....   [tags: European History]

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The Roles of Women in Medieval Scandinavia

- When people think about Medieval Scandinavia they usually think about a cold northern region inhabited by a warrior people who spend all of their time sailing around in Viking warships and plundering from one another or going to war with their neighbors. While our archaeological evidence from this period may be rather scarce, many cite the Scandinavian pagan religions as a evidence of this warrior society due to the fact that men were encouraged to fight in order to be chosen by the gods to live in Valhalla, the pagan equivalent, loosely equivalent, of heaven....   [tags: european history, world history]

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Execution of King Charles I

- King Charles I left us with some of the most intriguing questions of his period. In January 1649 Charles I was put on trial and found guilty of being a tyrant, a traitor, a murderer and a public enemy of England. He was sentenced to death and was executed on the 9th of February 1649. It has subsequently been debated whether or not this harsh sentence was justifiable. This sentence was most likely an unfair decision as there was no rule that could be found in all of English history that dealt with the trial of a monarch....   [tags: european history, royalty]

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John Locke and the Enlightenment

- This paper is about John Locke who was a philosopher in the 17-century. He was an Englishmen and his ideas formed the basic concept for the government and laws, which later allowed colonist to justify revolution. I agree with what Locke is saying because everybody should be able to have their own freedom and still respect the freedom of other people. John said, “Individuals have rights, and their duties are defined in terms of protecting their own rights and respecting those of others”. This paper will present to you information about his enlightenment, personal information, and how we as people feel about his decisions. The Enlightenment is a time in history when there was a want in great...   [tags: philosophy, biography, european history]

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The Causes of World War I

- "Wars are caused by miscalculations of the aggressors, and the failure of politicians and diplomats to exercise crisis management" a statement that with respect to World War I is generally true for many of the European empires including those of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia and other nations throughout Europe. World War I or the Great War as was called by it's contemporaries, had been long in the stockpiling; the spark was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne, the series of actions that fueled the war was almost a half of a centuries worth of secret treaties and alliance systems along with power struggles of some empires, such as that of Germany for...   [tags: European History]

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The Enlightenment Period and Napoleon's Rule

- The time of the Enlightenment was a time of great change, reform, and the emergence of great minds such as Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei, and even Copernicus. These men cleared the path to thinking in a new way and brought about the change necessary for the Scientific Revolution. The Enlightenment allowed people to think more critically and even was the time in which the “Experimental Method” was consolidated by Galileo Galilei (1564-1642, Buckler, J., Crowston, p.592 para. 6). It allowed people to begin to think “out of the box” if you will....   [tags: European History, French History]

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Origins of the English Civil War

- The English Civil War of 1642-1651 can be considered as a feud between the King and the English Parliament. Long before the onset of the civil war, Parliament and king Charles I had distrusted each other. As a result, Parliament often refused to finance the king’s wars. Unable to gain enough support from Parliament, Charles I challenged local control of nobles and landowners, who composed of the majority of Parliament, by “levying new tariffs and duties, attempting to collect discontinued taxes, and subjecting English property owners to…forced loan and then imprisoning those who refused to pay…as well as quartering troops in private homes” (Craig et al....   [tags: european history, british history]

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Attitudes Regarding Europe's Poor, 1450-1700

- Between 1450 and 1700, attitudes toward the European poor changed dynamically, roughly following a three-part cycle. In the late 1400's, the poor were regarded with sympathy and compassion; generous aid from both public and religious institutions was common. By the 16th Century, however, the poor were treated with suspicion and harsh measures, to ensure that they were not becoming lazy, using welfare as a substitute for labor. Beginning in the 17th Century, the attitudes toward the poor again shifted, returning to more sympathetic views and responses, though many members of the upper-class still retained the negative outlook on the destitute of the 16th Century....   [tags: European History]

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Can the Rise of Hitler Be Explained on Purely Economic Grounds?

- Can the rise of Hitler be explained on purely economic grounds. The end of WWII proved to the world that Adolf Hitler's power in Germany was extraordinary and defeat less. Historians have plucked apart Hitler's life trying to find an explanation for his rise to power that took place in the 19th and 20th centuries of Germany. It has been thought that the course of Germany's history would have been drastically different if in fact Germany had won WWI. Is it right to make such a bold statement regarding an era that produced the worst genocide the world has ever seen....   [tags: European History]

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Why Did the British Governent Evacuate Children from Major Cities at the Start of World War II?

- Even before War with Germany was accredited, the British government felt that it was necessary to shield the civilian inhabitants, especially children; pregnant mothers, disabled people and teachers accompanied them. The government decided to evacuate children from the major cities into rural areas. They had many reasons for doing this, each of them mainly linked to fear of civilian casualties. As it was the Germans themselves who began civilian bombings, the British government did have reason to believe that they would adopt this tactic again....   [tags: European History]

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Cardinal Richelieu's Contribution to the Growth of the French State

- Armand-Jean du Plessis de Richelieu was born in 1585, and would become the future chief minister of the French monarchy from 1624 to 1642. When he was born, on his cot was the motto, Regi Armandus, meaning "Armand for the King" . This statement would arguably become one of the truest statements in history, as Richelieu would eventually play a very important part in firmly establishing the power of the French monarchy over its subjects and the power of France as a world power . Richelieu has been seen by different historians in two ways; one being a ruthless despot who would do whatever he possibly could to achieve his goals, and the other being of a brilliant politician who transformed Franc...   [tags: European History]

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Causes in the Rise of Italian Fascism: 1870 to 1922

- 1. Introduction 1870 is a year to remember in Italian history: indeed, on 20 September 1870, the Italian army marched into Rome and captured the city, completing the unification process begun by Garibaldi and his Thousand in Sicily ten years earlier, in 1860. Obviously, the newly united Italian state was greeted with much celebration. Unfortunately, it was also only a start. In truth, fundamental problems still plagued the country and had to be addressed if complete hegemony was to be achieved: firstly, the new Kingdom of Italy suffered from extreme backwardness and secondly, it was still deeply divided....   [tags: European History]

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Changing Women's Roles as a Result of the Black Plague

- When Eve took that bite of the Forbidden Fruit, she had no idea what she had gotten women-kind into. Whether or not you believe in the story of creation, the perception of women as corrupting and sinful had shaped women's social roles in Western Society for thousands of years. Augustine was one of the first to write about the wickedness of women, and the acceptance of this doctrine is evident in the Letters of Abelard and Heloise through their disdain toward marriage. Along with mass death of the Black Plague, came an opportunity for women to change the ways in which society viewed them....   [tags: European History]

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The Triumph of Christianity in the Roman Empire

- Christians went from being persecuted to dominating Rome rather quickly. In a world where separation between church and state does not exist, a Christian becoming the sole emperor of Rome symbolized a huge turning point in history. The power switched and the Pagans in turn became persecuted. Christians rose up and took control of all aspects of Roman society. The Pagan past was destroyed, banned, or forgotten about. Those Christians that did not agree with how things were being run either left the empire and became monks or formed their own sect....   [tags: European History]

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The Treaty of Versailles: A German "Victory" in 1918

- A German Victory in 1918 When the treaty of Versailles was signed June 28 1919 the whole world celebrated an allied victory, more importantly they celebrated victory over an evil empire set to destroy the world. This is the viewpoint taught to any American child who studies World War One. To suggest anything to the contrary could be construed as treason, after all the United States and Great Britain are good nations full of good people run by good democracies that fight the good fight and win the good fight and make our world a better place....   [tags: European History]

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Early Christianity in Rome through Opposition of the Majority

- Christianity today, practiced by over 2 billion followers, is undoubtedly the world's largest religion. But of course, it hasn't always been this way. It began in the city of Rome, around the time of the Emperor Claudius who reigned from 41 to 54 CE. It is believed to have originated in the Roman province of Judea . Geography usually plays a big role in determining the success of developing cultures. According to Michael Gough, who wrote The Early Christians, this was the case for Christianity because the "geography [...] determined the direction and rate of spread of the new religion." However, with a good geography comes great diversity as well....   [tags: European History]

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Was Nazism in Germany Racist or Nationalist?

- Nazism was one of the most essential political ideologies in Germany in the twentieth century, led by Adolf Hitler. It was also an ideology that caused much distress and generated much controversy. Even to this day, historians and survivors alike, are still searching for answers that could explain how the ideals of one man, obsessed with the notions of creating a perfect and flawless race, became the centerpiece for what would be known as the worst tragedy in the history of mankind; the irrational mass killing of millions of innocent victims, particularly the Jews....   [tags: European History]

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1181 words | (3.4 pages) | Preview

Meaning of Nazism for Wealthy Army Officers

- Assess the meaning of Nazism for rapaciously rich army officers. During the period of the Nazi regime within Germany, rich army officers were caught between two state of minds. Those who were supporters of the Nazi regime and those who weren't. This division of loyalty, to the regime and, naturally, to Hitler was very important due to the fact it showed the performance of the Regime. If the Army officers were to not follow the regime, it would undoubtedly show weakness and naturally a weakening of Hitler's leadership....   [tags: European History]

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A Sucessful Ruler in Machiavelli's Eyes

- Many factors went into determining whether or not a prince or king was successful or not. Some of these factors were simple things such as the king's personality or the method by which he comes to power. Niccolo Machiavelli wrote this book as a guide for Lorenzo Medici to become a good ruler. He describes these factors, but attributes most leaders' achievements to their taking advantage of local circumstances. Machiavelli attributes military victory to having a strong army composed of native soldiers and strongly discourages using a mercenary army....   [tags: European History]

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Women's Literacy During the Middle Ages

- During the Middle Ages, women were considered to be inferior to men and were not formally educated. It was common for women to be unable to read and write in their own language. Even though some were fortunate enough to be taught how to read, some were still unable to write. Women were not usually taught how to read Latin, the language of male scholars and people of the Church, who also happened to be male. In the later Middle Ages, even most nuns were not able to learn Latin. Partially literate women became increasingly common in the later Middle Ages; but very few women were given the opportunity to learn to read and write....   [tags: European History]

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Book Review of The Classic Slum

- The book The Classic Slum: Salford Life in the First Quarter of the Century by Robert Roberts gives an honest account of a village in Manchester in the first 25 years of the 20th century. The title is a reference to a description used by Friedrich Engels to describe the area in his book Conditions of the Working Class. The University of Manchester Press first published Roberts' book in the year 1971. The more recent publication by Penguin Books contains 254 pages, including the appendices. The author gives a firsthand description of the extreme poverty that gripped the area in which he grew up....   [tags: European History]

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The Anorexic Empress: Elizabeth of Austria

- Duchess Elizabeth of Bavaria was the wife of 19th century Habsburg ruler, Franz Joseph I. She wed him at the ripe age of 16, and Franz only 23. Franz Joseph was the Emperor of Austria, the King of Hungary and also of Bohemia. Given that her husband was a man of great ruling, she had married herself into a world which attempted to give her a very formal lifestyle, and restrictive by court convention. The Duchess, better known as Sisi, which was her nickname, began to feel at odds with her new life....   [tags: European History]

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Banality of Evil and Adolf Eichmann

- "It was as though in those last minutes he was summing up the lesson that this long course in human wickedness had taught us--the lesson of the fearsome, the word-and-thought-defying banality of evil" (252). The capture and trial of Adolf Eichmann, which evoked legal and moral controversy across all nations, ended in his hanging over four decades ago. The verdict dealing with Eichmann's involvement with the Final Solution has never been in question; this aspect was an open-and-shut case which was put to death with Eichmann in 1962....   [tags: European History]

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Napoleon Crossing the Alps: Historical Meaning Behind the Portrait of Napoleon Bonaparte

- Napoleon crossing the Alps is also is the title given to the five versions of oil on canvas equestrian portrait of Napoleon Bonaparte painted by the French artist Jacques-Louis David between 1801 and 1805. Initially commissioned by the Spanish Ambassador to France, the composition shows a strongly idealized view of the real crossing that Napoleon and his army made across the Alps through the Great St. Bernard Pass in May 1800. Napoleon comes across to me as a leader in many different of ways. Jacques- Louis David is the creator of this painting....   [tags: art, painting, european history]

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Post First World War Revolutions in Germany and the Former Habsburg Empire

- The causes for revolutions in both Germany and the former Habsburg lands bear similarities at the core, yet an array of differences set them apart. In both cases revolutions would not have taken place during the years of 1918-1923, if not for the First World War. Mass discontent on the home front served as an overarching instigator; nevertheless, the similarities stop at the First World War being the primary catalyst for home front discontent and the differences begin with the specific reasons for discontent....   [tags: comparative analysis, European history]

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How Did the Cold War Affect the Politics of Germany and Italy?

- How did the Cold War affect the politics of Germany and Italy. The Cold War was the most important historic event in the 20th century after the Second World War, from 1945 till 1991 between two most powerful countries in that period – Soviet Union and USA. The Cold War invested a lot in world politics. What is the Cold War. This was a war for dominance in the world. In 1945 the USA was the only one country in the world that had the nuclear weapons. But in the 1949 USSR started to learn their nuclear weapons....   [tags: European history after WWII]

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16th and 17th Century Child Care and Child Discipline in Europe

- The children of Europe in the fifteen and sixteen hundreds lived lives that greatly differed from the lives of modern children. Fatality was extremely common among the youth, which caused them to be seen differently in society. Families also consisted of a larger amount of people than they usually do today. To teach kids discipline and morality, some parents and teachers used reasoning to articulate as why to a certain act or behavior is considered disrespectful. On the contrary, other parents used harsh punishments, either because they didn't love their children, or simply believed that it was the only way to ensure that their child would never commit the act that warranted such a conseque...   [tags: European history, parenting, ]

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19 th Century Bavarian Culture and Its Catholic Roots

- The distinctive character of 19th century Bavarian culture comes from its historic Catholic roots as well as the traditions of the many kingdoms and empires that have ruled Bavaria. The region was historically Roman Catholic, and its people spread this religious heritage across Germany and the many countries surrounding it. Bavaria formed Germany in Catholic culture and hard work. The ruling of Bavaria often changed among Austria, Czech Republic, and France as a result of war, causing significant tension between these countries and affecting the citizens’ religion and way of life at this time....   [tags: European history, heritage]

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Where is The Peace in The Treaty of 1763?

- ... “Indian communities had felt the reverberations of the global conflict between France and England.” (Pg.48) Indians in the Northeast were very diverse. Majority were dependent on the French to give them gifts and goods to survive and fight. The French knew through developing a relationship with the Indians by giving gifts created a way for them to gain some control over them. The Indians called the French their “European Father.” Indians gave the analogy of themselves being a son to the French as them being the dad....   [tags: native americans, control, european, history]

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The Reign of Louis XIV

- Louis XIV was born in 1638. In the year 1661 he succeeded the regent Cardinal Mazarin. At the time he was only twenty-three. Louis applied the symbol of the sun to his reign; "the light that imparts to the other heavenly bodies." Louis intended to make the other states of Europe "the other heavenly bodies," him take taking the role and duties of the sun. As you will see King Louis XIV was a very proud, clever, glory-hungry, and well-spoken ruler. There are three authors in the section on Louis XIV who discuss the qualities and short-comings during his time of power....   [tags: European History]

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The Origins of Modern Science

- The origins of modern science date to the seventeenth century, a period so marked by innovative thinking that it has been called the `century of genius.'...Breaking free of the bonds of tradition, these sixteenth-century thinkers developed the scientific method, a means of understanding based on a systematic observation of natural phenomena and experimentation regarding causes and effects (Merriman, 311). The ideas of many scientists, and philosophers, such as Copernicus, Johannes Kepler, and Francis Bacon, flew in the face of the 16th century intellectual orthodoxy....   [tags: European History]

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The Psychology of Adolf Hitler

- The Psychology of Hitler It is no surprise to very few that Adolph Hitler is one of the most infamous humans ever to have been born. To this day, the mention of his name can conjure up emotions deep within us. He is responsible for the deaths of millions of people either directly or indirectly. The fascinating aspect of his life is what was the true motivation behind his prejudice, cruelty, and heartlessness. The next logical speculation for most would be his upbringing or that he was physiologically unstable, more logically it was a combination of the two....   [tags: European History]

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A Brief Look at Late Tsarist Russia

- Late-Tsarist Russia Introduction The Late-Tsarist period in Russia is popular in the state’s history in that it was during this time that serfdom was abolished, that is around the early 1860s. Before this era, serfdom was legal and practiced in the traditional Russian systems. Serfdom was an ideology of the late 1640s which gave to landowners the power to override the lives of their peasant serfs (workers) as long as they lived on their land. Serfdom’s legal powers included denial of movement from the landlord’s place, and freedom in acquiring as much service as a landlord could demand....   [tags: enmancipation, European history, Tsar Alexander]

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Film Analysis: The Lion In Winter

- The theatrical film The Lion In Winter stars Peter O’Toole as King Henry II, and Katharine Hepburn as his wife, Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine. Adapted from his stage play of the same title, author James Goldman provides a fictional, but plausible, account of intra-family deceit and political conniving within the large and powerful Angevin Empire, which spanned much of the land that is now Britain, and much of what is now Northeastern France, within the medieval world. Directed and edited by Anthony Harvey, the story, set in the winter of 1183, details the succession crisis faced by the aging King Henry II, as his three surviving sons vie for the crown, and Queen Eleanor plots, both with and aga...   [tags: European History, Power Struggle]

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The Black Death or Bubonic Plague

- Imagine horrific death took over your city and most of your loved ones were gone. You once believed in your faith most definitely, but now question everything; why are you here. Is there a higher power in existence. Is there a God. What is God. The world you once knew deteriorated; everything you were certain of and the society around you crumbled before you. These were all the effect of the Black Death. The Black Death, also known as the Bubonic Plague occurred between 1347 and 1351.It was a mass disaster that had spread throughout Europe....   [tags: health catastrophes in European history]

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Luis XIV, and His Selfish Ways

- Luis XIV, and His Selfish Ways If you were asked to answer the question, “Which king in European history was the best representative of absolutism?”, you would probably answer, “Louis XIV.” If you were asked to identify the king with the biggest palace and the most glamorous court, you would answer “Louis XIV.” If you were asked to identify the king whose reign coincided with the most glorious period of culture in his country's history, you would answer “Louis XIV.” If you were asked to identify what king fought an endless series of wars, heavily taxed his population, set up the pre-conditions for a revolution against his own system and was jeered by his people as his body was...   [tags: European History Essays]

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The Third French Republic

- In the years from 1871 to 1914, France saw many social changes, economic and cultural, under the new government of the Third Republic. France experienced the modernization of its rural areas, the centralization of the state, and the emergence of a mass media culture. Furthermore, internationally France was heavily involved in the European race to imperialize in Africa and Asia. political participation in the international arena, which at the time was heavily involved in the race for imperial expansion in Africa and Asia....   [tags: European History]

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King Louis XIV: A Disastrous Ruler

- King Louis XIV: A Disastrous Ruler It is often debated whether or not the reign of King Louis XIV had a positive or negative effect on France. Although there were improvements during his reign in transportation, culture, and national defense, there were far more negative aspects. He depleted the national treasury with his liberal spending on personal luxuries and massive monuments. His extreme fear of the loss of power led to poor decision making, which caused the court to be of lower quality....   [tags: European History Essays]

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The Black Plague and Its Impact on Medicine in Medieval Society

- The Black Plague and its Impact on Medicine in Medieval Society The Black Death (also called the "plague" or the "pestilence", the bacteria that causes it is Yersinia Pestis) was a devastating pandemic causing the death of over one-third of Europe's population in its major wave of 1348-1349. Yersinia Pestis had two major strains: the first, the Bubonic form, was carried by fleas on rodents and caused swelling of the lymph nodes, or "buboes", and lesions under the skin, with a fifty-percent mortality rate; the second, the pneumonic form, was airborne after the bacteria had mutated and caused fluids to build up in the lungs and other areas, causing suffocation and a seventy-percent mortality...   [tags: European History]

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The Great Awakening and its Impact on the Religion of the American Colonies

- Religion has been around since the discovery of America. Many European immigrants came to America to escape the traditions of the Church of England. The people wanted religious freedom. Most, however, tried to force their religious beliefs on the people who came to settle in their colonies creating a divide. It wasn’t until The Great Awakening, which started in the New England colonies, occurred that people rose up and revolted against the norms of religion and began to worship the way they wanted to....   [tags: american history, european history, religion]

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Fashion in the Middle Ages

- The clothing of the Middle Ages, like everything else was decided by the pyramid of power. The pyramid of power was the Middle Ages Feudal System. Medieval clothes provided information about the rank of the person wearing them. From the 11th through the 14th centuries, medieval clothing assorted according to the social standing of the people. The clothing worn by nobility and upper classes was clearly different than that of the lower class. Medieval clothes provided information about the status of the person wearing them....   [tags: european history, clothing]

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Philosophers of the Age of Enlightenment

- During the eighteenth century, ideas of reform started in France and spread through Europe. This period is referred to as The Age of Enlightenment. The Enlightenment carried the idea that economic change and political reform were possible. People started to think that they could use their own intellect to challenge the intellectual authority of tradition and the Christian past. The people who wrote for change and reform were called the philosophes (French for philosophers). They wrote hoping to bring reform to religion, political thought, society, government, and the economy....   [tags: European History]

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The History of D-Day

- The History of D-Day June 6, 1944 will be remembered for many reasons. Some may think of it as a success and some as a failure. The pages following this could be used to prove either one. The only sure thing that I can tell you about D-Day is this: D-Day, June 6, 1944 was the focal point of the greatest and most planned out invasion of all time. The allied invasion of France was long awaited and tactfully thought out. For months the allied forces of millions trained in Britain waiting for the Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Forces, General Eisenhower to set a date....   [tags: European American History World War Two Essays]

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Gwenllian Princess of Wales

- Gwenllian Princess of Wales Gwenllian was only a few months old when her father, Llywelyn the Last, was killed near Irfon Bridge on 11 December 1282. Her mother, Llywelyn's cousin, Eleanor de Montfort, died while giving birth to her in the palace of Pen-y-Bryn, in Abergwyngregyn near Bangor, Gwynedd on 12 June 1282. Llywelyn and Eleanor (the daughter of Simon de Monfort) were married in Worcester in 1278 following Eleanor's release at the end of a period of about three years as a prisoner of the English crown....   [tags: European History]

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The British Industrial Revolution

- Of all the countless factors that attributed to the unparallel success of the industrial revolution in England, there were a select few that really played roles front and center of everything. Debatably, the single largest factor of the growth for the industrial sects of England was the close proximity of the factories, markets, ports and cities to one another. Moving raw materials and finished products became very cheap to do England. Aided by the invention of the steam-powered locomotive things could be shipped very quickly and cheaply increasing the profits....   [tags: European History]

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The Great Potato Famine

- The Great Potato Famine The Great Potato Famine is characterized as one of the leading disasters in Ireland’s history. It began in the summer of 1845 with the appearance of an unusual disease growing on potato crops throughout various parts of Europe. With the spread of this disease, it soon targeted Ireland consuming the major crop of potatoes. The famine began by this mysterious disease that hit many parts of Europe during 1845. This disease known as the blight was caused by a fungus known ‘phytophthora infestans’....   [tags: European History]

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Achievments of Louis IX

- The historian Frederick William Maitland was fond of reminding the scholars of his generation to "think the thoughts of medieval men as they thought them" . To assess the achievements of Louis IX we must try to think his thoughts. We cannot make assessments based on what we perceive to be achievements in this age, as this will invariably lead us to false conclusions. From a detached perspective Louis was a golden king. His administration was second to none. His reputation internationally was unexcelled both in his role as arbiter for other countries, peacemaker in his own and, as William Chester Jordan remarked on his securing of the Languedoc "his rapid assimilation of this regi...   [tags: European History]

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British Colonialism

- The study of British colonialism is a rather new field with much to discuss and a lot more to debate. The recent recognition of new nation-states that were once under the control of Britain was a growing phenomenon and one that continues to play a large role in today’s global politics. Since the rather recent period of these new nations, new study’s have been done into the history of a) the peoples that inhabited the land before Britain, b) the way Britain occupied and control and land, and now c) post-Britain....   [tags: European History ]

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Irish Famine

- The Irish Potato Famine was a period of starvation, disease and emigration, and was known as one of the biggest tragedies from 1845 to 1847. Many people depended on potato crops to survive; however [comma] the potato crops acquired blight, a disease that caused the potatoes to rot while still in the ground. No good crops could be grown for two years [comma] causing Irish tenant farmers unable to pay rent and was forced off their land causing over 21,000 people to die of starvation. The Irish Potato Famine caused many people to leave Ireland to seek work overseas in areas such as England and America....   [tags: European History ]

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Feudal Europe

- There have been several key time periods that have changed the face of society such as; the hunter gatherer nomadic lifestyle to agriculture, classical antiquities, the Middle Ages renaissance, reformation to modern times. In a lecture for History and Social Change at the University of Abertay Dundee, W Mcneish describes history as being a “contested terrain with the views of the historian giving their perception of events”. This essay will discuss the key features of the feudal period and the key processes leading to the transition of this society from a sociological perspective covering; the rise of feudalism, the hierarchical structure of feudal Europe, the feudal mode of production, urba...   [tags: European History ]

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The Enlightenment

- During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the scientific revolution brought about a slow change in societies’ thinking regarding math, earth science, physics, and astronomy. Early on, new ideas about our universe were not widely accepted, especially from the church. This soon changed due to the hard work and perseverance of several scientists and philosophers who unbeknownst to them brought about an era known as the Enlightenment. The Enlightenment, which eased into existence in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries created a new way of thinking based on rationality....   [tags: European History]

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Rationality in Humans

- Contradiction is the nature of the society. If there is a religion, there will be those who do not believe. If there is a war, there will be those that want peace. If there is a political movement, there will be those that disagree. Humans are bound to go against their own believes, their own strategies, and their own establishments. Nothing is forever. History portrays people going against the accepted ideologies. It shows the everlasting change of the society. First, they thought that God was the explanation to everything....   [tags: European History]

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What Were the Consequences of the First World War for the British People 1914 - 1924?

- There were many consequences and changes to British society because of the war, both positive and negative, however if you look closely some of the changes such as women obtaining the right to vote could have happened naturally - war or no war. The war provided many changes both socially, economically and politically. One such social change was the population of men declining drastically, this was of course because of the death toll as a result of the war. As a result of this the population of women went up from 595 per thousand to 638 per thousand and the proportion of widows went from 38% - 43% and there were also now 3.5 million orphans....   [tags: European History]

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Bismarck's Speech on the Issue of the Poles and His Understanding of the German Nation

- What does Bismarck's speech on the issue of the Poles reveal about his understanding of the German nation. Bismarck's treatment of the Polish population of Prussia, and his consequent defence of that treatment, like his handling of Prussian Catholics and socialists, is of interest both as a problem in itself but also for the insights it gives us into his understanding of the German nation. Bismarck's "Polish Problem" speech delivered to the Lower House of the Prussian parliament is a result of the brutal expulsion from Prussian territory of some 30,000 Poles carried out the year before (1885) and serves as a response to the opponents of that expulsion, the Polish Party and the Central party...   [tags: European History]

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Queen Elizabeth's Use of Imagery and Language in The Doubt of Future Foes

- Queen Elizabeth's Use of Imagery and Language in The Doubt of Future Foes Queen Elizabeth persuades her subjects to be faithful and discourages her foes from the pursuit of her throne in the stark imagery of “The Doubt of Future Foes.” Elizabeth uses the three appeals of successful argument to evoke fear and respect in those that may attempt to challenge her position as Queen. The Queen captivates her audience with solid logical arguments and dramatic threatening language while establishing her credibility as a fearless powerful leader, utilizing the logos, pathos, and ethos methods of persuasion....   [tags: European History]

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The Influence of Scientific Theory on the Life of Woman in Victorian England

- According to Suffer and Be Still by Martha Vicinus, early ideas about science and sexuality greatly influenced a Victorian woman's life. A Victorian woman not only had to worry about being everything that is feminine but she also was burdened with ludicrous ideas about her health and sexuality. Naturally who better to inform women of their health and sexuality than men. I will be examining three factors that influenced a Victorian woman. First the scientific support put forth that women were naturally weaker than men....   [tags: European History]

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The French Immigration in the United States and Their Contribution to This Country.

- This assignment encouraged me to inquire into the historic significance the French immigrants had upon the United States. I would like to develop this aspect starting with the early French settlements and terminate by discussing their contributions to the United States. The United States is an immense country, with many residents and citizens descending from immigrants who have influenced many customs, traditions, behaviors and ways of life. Unlike many old world nations, the United States does not have a homogenous population or a traditional homeland....   [tags: European History]

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The Impact of Increased Literacy on Ballads and Chapbooks in Seventeenth-Century England

- The Impact of Increased Literacy on Ballads and Chapbooks in Seventeenth-Century England In seventeenth-century England, the rise of popular education and literacy coinciding with the mechanical technology of printing, led to the decline in the creation of ballads and in the importance of chapbooks. After England's Restoration period, inexpensive print was available in large quantities due to new technological innovations in the printing field. Almanacs became important for households on all social levels to own and approximately four hundred thousand were printed in the 1660s annually....   [tags: European History]

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Politics of Big Business' During the Rise of the Nazi Party

- Turner argues that the representatives of big business did not support Hitler financially on his rise to power because the fear of a Nazi socialist government. Business representatives used their money and political power to keep a government free of Marxism. They realized their businesses would not thrive when politics totally controlled the economy. Turner says that big business' role in politics where to preserve a nonsocialist government by forming nonsocialist parties, funding nationalist candidates, and by supporting the conservative wing of the Nazi party....   [tags: European History]

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Catherine the Great of Russia and the Coup against Peter III

- The real figure and story of Catherine the Great and Peter the Third has been overlaid by gilt and varnish much like the church mural paintings of old. Some of the true story would be uncovered, while other fragments of it would remain hidden beneath the surface never to be revealed. The allegory of Catherine, and the mysteriously convenient death of Peter III, is one that has been pondered over for decades. With very little evidence to go by the events that occurred on June 28, 1762 are very mysterious and highly susceptible to exaggeration and bias....   [tags: European History]

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Economic Success and Political Influence of the Fuggers and Medicis

- In the late fifteenth, and early sixteenth centuries the first economic Golden Age began. Two families, the Fugger's and Medici's were of immense wealth and power. Both helped to finance projects for certain people and institutions of power, like the Pope, English Monarchy and the Holy Roman Empire. Their economic success and political influence caused much turmoil then, and even more in the future. Because of the Fuggers' and Medici's wealth and power in society they easily influenced politics, especially ecclesiastical governance by usury and sale of indulgences....   [tags: European History]

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The Romantic Period and the Victorian Age in Great Britain

- The Romantic Period (1785-1830) was a very turbulent period, during which England experienced the ordeal of change from a primarily agricultural society to a modern industrial nation. French Revolution and storming of the Bastille had a great influence on English society and literature. It influenced almost every sphere of life. The Victorian Age (1830-1901) was a period of great progress and prosperity for the nation. This was a period in which industry, technology, and science were celebrated with renewed vigor....   [tags: European History]

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