In 2008, close to 130, 000 lung cancer deaths were projected to occur in the US (Samet, Avila-Tang, & Rudin, 2009). In 2013, Swartz (2013) states that this projection has risen to at least 150, 000 individuals. As Samet et al. (2009) continue to afford, around 15% of these projected lung cancer deaths would occur as a result of factors other than active smoking. What does this mean? What it means, simply, is that while staying away from tobacco use is normally considered a sure way of avoiding lung cancer, it is often not a guarantee, according to Simon (2014), every year, 16, 000 to 25, 000 Americans end up dying of lung cancer even though they have never smoked. This establishes the premise for the problem of lung cancer in non-smokers. As asserted by Simon (2014), the magnitude of this problem is embodied in the fact that if lung cancer in non-smokers were to be considered a separate category, it would rank as one of the leading causes of cancer mortalities. The purpose of this literature review is to examine the causes of lung cancer in non-smokers and what forms of interventions have so far been introduced in regards to their prevention.
A Concise Definition of Lung Cancer
It is of necessity to define holistically what lung cancer really is, because it will allow further delving into the current statistics, thereby providing for its understood differentiation in non-smokers. According to the American Thoracic Society (2009), lung cancer is the abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells within the lung. The symptoms associated with lung cancer often vary from individual to another. However, according to The American Thoracic Society (2009), examples of common symptoms include, but are not limited to; persistent ...
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...rs. Despite the lack of resources to fund research and the lack of information, Simon (2014), states that researchers have made a lot of progress over the past decade in understanding the causes of lung cancer in non-smokers.
Stoppler & Marks (2009) define passive smoking as the inhalation of tobacco smoke from other smokers. This exposure often tends to be more prevalent in living and working quarters essentially areas prone to congestion. According to Stoppler & Marks (2009) non-smokers who share residence with smokers reflect a 24% risk increase of lung cancer in comparison to other non-smokers. As a matter of fact, both Simon (2014) and Stoppler & Marks (2009) state that in the US alone, lung cancer due to passive smoking or second-hand smoke for that matter, is directly responsible for the death s of over 3, 000 individuals. Samet et al. (2009)
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