The Levels of Processing in a Judgement and Recall Task Essay

The Levels of Processing in a Judgement and Recall Task Essay

Length: 1542 words (4.4 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Powerful Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

One hundred and forty two undergraduate students participated in a levels-of-processing experiment on the basis of Craik & Tulving’s (1975) famous model. Participants were presented with shallow, intermediate or semantic words within 60 judgment trials, followed by a recognition test of 120 trials containing half of the original words. The findings suggest that participants recognized the semantic words better compared to the shallow and intermediate words; this proposes that by the use of attention, semantic processing leads to a stronger memory trace. Possible explanations and future research regarding levels of processing are discussed.

The levels of processing have become a central phenomenon in cognitive psychology in the last several decades. In everyday tasks, one may not realize that he or she is using the semantic processing for deeper analysis of the story. For example, when reading a novel, it comes naturally and is most likely stored into long-term memory for recall (Craik& Lockhart, 1972, p. 680); that way when the person is discussing about that novel in conversation, it is easy to remember important facts or characters without having to go back and confirm. Craik and Lockhart (1972), as cited in Glanzer, 1972, p. 680) highlighted that in free recall, variables such as presentation rate, and word frequency, affect long-term but not short-term retention. In a positive and negative recall in both incidental and intentional learning environments performed by Craik & Tulving (1975, pg.276), it was concluded that deeper level processing requires more time, but the qualitative nature of the task determines the level of recall. As a result attention is required when focusing on a certain task.
In order to obtain a stronge...


... middle of paper ...


...lications for communication and its fallibility may even impose a threat to survival.



Works Cited

Biederman J., Faraone S.V. (2005). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. http:/www.thelancet.com, 366, 237-248.
Craik, F.I.M., & Lockhart, R.S. (1972). Levels of Processing: A Framework for Memory Research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 11, 671-684.
Craik, F.I.M.,& Tulving E. (1975). Depth of Processing and the Retention of Words in Episodic Memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 104:3, 268-294.
Muhle R., Trentacoste S.V., Rapin I. (2004). The Genetics of Autism. Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics. 113, 472-S486.
Toichi M., Kamio Y. (2001). Long term memory and levels of processing in autism. Neuropsychologica. 40, 964-969.
Vanhorn, D. (2007). Coglab Online Manual. Belmont, CA: Thomson West.



Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Effects of Levels of Processing, Context, and Gender Differences in Recall Memory

- Over the years, several models have been proposed to explain the nature of memory processes (e.g., Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968; Craik & Lockhart, 1972; Estes & Maddox, 1995; Raajimakers & Shiffrin, 1981). One of those models, level of processing, proposed that the duration that information can be held in the memory depends on the depth at which it is processed, not the stage of memory in which it is held. A study by Smith, Theodore, and Franklin (1983) examined this hypothesis by investigating how depth of processing affect the amount of processing obtained in the processing of a target item in a lexical detection task (LDT) by college students....   [tags: duration, information, processing]

Powerful Essays
1401 words (4 pages)

Free Recall and Memory Essay

- In daily life, memory is used all the time. When we go to buy things, we would remember the list of items what we are going to buy. At school, we would also need to have revision in order to remember the materials for examination. Or even, when we meet friends, we would also need to recall their names. Thus it is important to know and understand how we remember such things so that we can effectively recall them when necessary. Obviously, we do not need to remember the exact position or order of things in daily life....   [tags: free recall, memory, psychology,]

Powerful Essays
788 words (2.3 pages)

The Recall Of Undergraduate Students Essay examples

- Students are often challenged with multitasking in a classroom setting, such as taking notes, listening to a lecture, and interacting with their cell phones or laptops. As students are allocating their attention to multiple places at once, it is important that students still learn effectively. The purpose of this study is to understand how the recall of undergraduate students is being effected by this division of attention. Electronic devices, such as phones and laptops, are becoming an immense distraction in schools, and they appear to be negatively impacting learning (Carrier, Rosen, Cheever, & Lim, 2015)....   [tags: Learning, Educational psychology, Task]

Powerful Essays
2100 words (6 pages)

Essay on The Memory Theories of Levels of Processing

- This research tests the memory theories of levels of processing proposed by Craik and Lockhart (1972) and encoding specificity presented by Wiseman and Tulving (1976). Craik and Lockhart (1972) assert that stimuli that are semantically related are encoded more deeply than stimuli that are related physically. Wiseman and Tulving (1976) state that encoded information must be retrieved in the same way in which it was encoded. These two theories come together in the current experiment where the subjects rate the relatedness of word pairs on either rhyming or categorization....   [tags: memory, processin, encoding]

Powerful Essays
1293 words (3.7 pages)

Importance Of Contextual Learning On Memory Recall Essay

- (317 words) Importance of contextual learning in memory recall It is clear that learning with given context assists memory retention in the long run such as having pre-requisite information to guide them in processing new information. Without previous knowledge, new information can result in incomplete or shallow processing and therefore confuse the individual who cannot comprehend the meaning and be unable to understand. As highlighted in Bransford & Johnson (1972), when prior relevant information (e.g....   [tags: Arithmetic mean, Mean, Memory, Recall election]

Powerful Essays
1008 words (2.9 pages)

Models amd Stages of Memory Essay

- ... Their model of memory known as the levels of processing model explains that contrasting the multi store model this model carries a non-structured approach. This idea was shaped due to an effect of the criticism levelled at the multi store model. Craik and Lockhart (1972) model idea basically is that memory is the happening and result of one’s information process. As a substitute of focusing on the stores or structures like the LTM and STM, concentration in this theory is given more to the processes involved in memory....   [tags: encoding, processing, recall]

Powerful Essays
755 words (2.2 pages)

Essay on Digital Imaging Procesing Techiques

- Image Processing Image processing is any form of signal processing for which the input is an image, such as a photograph or video frame, the output of the image processing may be either an image or a set of characteristics or parameters related to the image. Most image processing techniques involve treating the image as a two-dimensional signal and applying standard signal processing techniques to it. Image processing usually refers to digital image processing, but optical and analog image processing also are possible....   [tags: processing a picture by a computer]

Powerful Essays
1063 words (3 pages)

Essay Long-term Recall of Traumatic Experiences

- On the morning of September 11, 2001, exactly at 9:22 a.m., I woke up to start my day and turned my television on. Instantly, Fox News had reported that a commercial plane had smashed into the Twin Towers of New York City, just minutes earlier. While the story was certainly shocking, I wanted to know more and watched the horrific aftermath unfold, as it continued to happen. I remember an incredible feeling of sadness that I could do nothing to help the people in these buildings, as well as a great concern that more attempts could be made to create further tragedy elsewhere....   [tags: Total Recall Memory ]

Powerful Essays
938 words (2.7 pages)

Survival Processing Essay

- Numerous studies have shown the human mind has a heightened ability to encode information relevant to our survival. During the standard paradigm used for proving a basis for survival processing, participants were instructed to imagine themselves in an unknown grassland without access to basic needs (Kostic, McFarlan, & Cleary, 2012). The subjects were then asked to rate a list of items based on how useful they would be given the survival scenario (Kostic et al., 2012). Following a short delay, the participants were then asked to recall or recognize items, which had previously been presented (Kostic et al., 2012)....   [tags: Sociology]

Powerful Essays
1747 words (5 pages)

Essay about The White Male Fantasy of Total Recall

- The White Male Fantasy of Total Recall      After saving the planet from a ruthless dictator and barely avoiding death on the hills of Mars, Douglas Quaid (Schwarzenegger) puts a final spin on Total Recall with his final lines: "I just had a terrible thought. What if this is all a dream?" This last statement by Quaid leaves the audience pondering the question of reality, wondering what truly was 'real.' By the end of the film, one could easily argue a whole realm of possibilities: The events were all real; they were all a dream; they were the Recall implant fantasy played out; or they were the Recall fantasy gone haywire....   [tags: Total Recall Essays]

Free Essays
3349 words (9.6 pages)