Compare and contrast the multi-store model of memory with the working memory model.
This essay will firstly briefly describe the theories and important facts about the original multi-store model of memory (MSM) and the working memory model (WMM).
This essay will then evaluate the key studies within these two models and explain the strengths and weaknesses of the main theories.
The final part of this essay will be to examine the similarities and differences between the two models.
The first issue that needs to be addressed however is what exactly is memory? “ Without memory we would be servants of the moment, with nothing but our innate reflexes to help us deal with the world. There would be no language, no art, no science, no culture. Civilization itself is the distillation of human memory” (Blakemore 1988). The simple interpretation of Blakemore’s theory on what memory is that a person’s memory is at least one of the most important things in their life and without it civilization itself could not exist.
One of the first psychologists to research memory was James in 1890. James was the first person to make the distinction between primary and secondary memory, which corresponds with short-term, and long-term memory, without this distinction then the MSM could not have been created.
The MSM was created by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968), this model was proposed to explain how the human memory works. The MSM is based on four key areas the sensory memory, the short-term memory, the long-term memory and rehearsal.
In the sensory memory is the information that is given to a person by their senses, i.e. what a person feels, hears, tastes, smells or sees is stored within this memory. Any information stored within this memory on...
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...the WMM only focuses on the short-term memory or working memory, where as the MSM focuses on all parts of memory.
While the MSM does focus on all parts of memory however unlike the WMM it portrays the short-term memory as a single unit and not as a combination of versatile and independent components.
In the WMM memory is considered an active process and not just a passive store of information, unlike the MSM.
In the MSM the main use for the short-term memory was rehearsal was the only way in which information could be transferred to the long-term memory but in the WMM there are several ways in which this process can occur.
Atkinson, R.C. & Shiffrin, R.M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control process.
Blakemore, C. (1988). The mind machine. London: BBC Publications
James, W. (1890). Principals of psychology. New York: Holt
Over the years, memory have been researched and debated, however there are two theories that have explained extensively and are highly recognised by psychologist in the cognitive field of psychology and scientist alike, on how we process experiences and turn them into memories. These theories include the Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) Multi-store Model of Memory and Baddeley and Hitch (1974) Phonological Loop Model of Memory. This essay aims to compare, contrast and evaluate these models of memory, with supporting evidence and empirical research.
Memory can be defined as the mental system for receiving, encoding, storing, organising, altering and retrieving information (Coon & Mitterer, 2012). Many a time one is able to remember something, example how to drive a car, yet they are unable to remember a mathematical formula for an examination. People vary in their ability to remember certain things, and research conducted has proven that even infants differ in their memory abilities (Fagan & Singer, 1963). It was discovered by psychologists that memory is not static, but rather it is influenced by ones internal factors and situational happenings to a large effect (Huffman, Vernoy & Vernoy, 1997). This essay will attempt to discover which method of study is most suitable, by listing and explaining various memory strategies, as well as indicating how each method will improve memory efficiency. The process of memory is made up of three operations. The first being Encoding, this is the conversion of information into a form which enables it to be retained in memory (Coon & Mitterer, 2012). The second operation is called Storage, this is the keeping of information until it is later needed. The third and final operation is known as Retrieval, and this is the recovering of information from Storage (Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus & Wagenaar, 2009). These formerly mentioned operations each represent a stage in the process of memory (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012).
Memory is an important and active system that receives information. Memory is made up of three different stages sensory memory, short term memory, and long term memory. According to the power point presentation, sensory memory refers to short storage of memory that allows an individual to process information as it occurs. Short term memory refers to memory that is only available for a limited time. It is information that is held for seconds or sometimes even minutes. Long term memory refers to memory that is stored for a long period of time and it has an unlimited capacity with the ability to hold as much information as possible. Retrieval is key and it allows individuals to have memories. Episodic memory refers to memory for events that we
According to Baddeley, in 1986, there is a diagram called The Working Memory Model. The definition of working memory is the part of short-term memory that is concerned with immediate conscious perceptual and linguistic processing. In a sense, working memory is the process of consciously memorizing whatever one is focused upon, only being held for a short amount of time. One will not retain this information long, unless it is rehearsed enough to where it will be placed in long term memory. According to Rich Master author of “The Oxford Handbook of Sport and Performance Psychology”, “Working memory processes data via a central executive that directs attention,...
Memory is a group of related mental processes that are involved in acquiring, storing, and retrieving information (Hockenberry and Hocenberry page 232). I will be addressing two specific types of memory: short-term memory and long-term memory. Short-term memory holds temporary information transferred from sensory memory or long-term memory. Sensory memory is the first stage of memory and obtains information for a brief amount of time. Short-term memory is also called active memory and is stored in the prefrontal cortex which is the most active part of the brain during an activity. Short-term memory can hold information for roughly twenty seconds, but sensory memory holds information for a shorter amount of time. We usually store things such
Do you ever wonder how our brains can remember so many things? Our minds are a lot like computers “we can draw on our past experiences in order to use this information in the present” (Sternberg, 1999). “Memory is a group of related mental processes that are involved inacquiring, storing, and retrieving information” (Psychology, page 228). “We have 3 main stages of memory our sensory memory, short- term memory, and long term memory.” I will be stating some interesting facts about each one. Beginning with our sensory memory, one of the facts I found from the book was that “The very brief time information is held in our sensory memory you “select,” or pay attention to, just a few aspects of all the environmental information that’sbeing registered
Memory is the brain’s ability to collect, encrypt and retrieve information. There are three types of memory: sensory, short-term, and long term. Sensory memory is the first step of memory. The brain takes in the information but does not store it for more than a few seconds. Short-term memory is the second step where the brain works on the information obtained from sensory memory. Sensory memory is not long-term, meaning it is not stored very long. Long-term memory is the brain’s ability to store short-term memory into information that can later be retrieved. Long-term memory does not have a length of time that it is stored. It is archived in the brain and can be retrieved minutes, days, and many years later after it is stored.
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