Leadership As A Social Influence Process Essay example

Leadership As A Social Influence Process Essay example

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Leadership is seen as a process by which one individual influences others toward the attainment of group or organizational goals. It is a social influence process, which involves voluntary action on the part of followers and it is always purposeful and goal-oriented. Leadership deals with influence and is not the same as management, which includes planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling.

One of the first approaches to leadership is the leadership trait theory that people are born with certain character traits. The theory assumes that people are born as leaders or not as leaders because the traits are considered to be naturally part of a person 's personality. The basic idea behind trait theory is that effective leaders are born, not made. The trait theory was used in the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s. Studies have looked for significant link between individual traits and measuring of leadership effectiveness, where physical, mental and social characteristics of individuals have been examined.

Leadership has also been studied via the behavior approach. The behavior approach refocuses the interest from the traits to the leaders ' behavior. Leaders ' behavior becomes more important than their physical, mental or emotional traits. Ohio State University and the University of Michigan developed the two main studies of this approach in the late 1940s and 1950s. The studies have recognized two main behaviors: people-oriented and production-oriented behavior. According to the leader behavior approach, there are several behaviors that would be invariably effective for leaders, but empirical research does not show a strong relation between task-oriented or person-oriented leader behaviors and leader effectiveness.

A new element...

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... knowledge are analyzed by the theory as the characteristics of subordinates that may substitute for leadership.

Entrepreneurial leadership sees leaders as able to improve performance, adaptability and long-term potential and to encourage subordinates to reach higher levels of achievement by using creative organizational strategies. The theory studies this approach in business environments, which are changing and competitive. Entrepreneurial leaders take calculated risks, they form an effective venture team, work to find the needed resources and use fundamental skill to make a stable business plan.

The servant leadership approach studies the leadership from the point of view that leaders should be servants first in order to understand the needs of employees, customers and the community better. The understanding will allow leaders to achieve stronger effectiveness.

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