HIV Transmission From Mother to Child
HIV can be transmitted from mother to child perinatally. Transmission can happen early in pregnancy from mother to fetus or later during labor and deliver. A couple of risk factors that increase the likelihood of the infant getting infected include premature birth, low birth weight, skin and mucous membrane lesions, and breastfeeding (Burr). Breastfeeding can increase the risk of transmission by 5-20% (Burr). In 2010, about 217 children younger than 13 years old were diagnosed with HIV and of those children, 162 were perinatally infected (HIV Among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children). This number was obtained by taking the number of women with HIV giving birth in the United States over the total number of women who gave birth per 100,000 live births each year. During 2007 through 2009, black/African American children had the highest HIV rate; meanwhile, the Hispanic/Latino and white children had stable rates (HIV Among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children). The goal of the United States is to eliminate mother to child HIV transmission and is trying to reduce the rate among infants born to HIV-infected mothers to less than 1% (HIV Among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children). HIV is a disease that continues to affect people in the U.S. Therefore, it is important to address this issue because whatever the mother does during pregnancy can influence the child 's health later in life. Helping pregnant women who have HIV can reduce the risk of their child getting infected and then help reduce the number of people living with HIV in the U.S.
Early programming is necessary because the most critical periods are while the baby is in the utero and when it is born. Many people do not know that tran...
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...providing the support she needs. Seeking help will give the woman a sense of empowerment because she is accepting that she needs help and is willing to change in order to live a healthier lifestyle and help reduce the transmission from mother to child.
Burr, Carolyn. "Reducing Perinatal HIV Transmission." AIDS Education and Training Centers National Resource Center (2014): Section 4. Web. 5 May 2015.
"HIV Among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children." Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2014). Web. 5 May 2015.
Nesheim, Steven, et al. "A Framework for Elimination of Perinatal Transmission of HIV in the United States." Pediatrics 130.4 (2012): 268-286. Web. 7 May 2015.
"Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV." 22 September 2014. AIDSinfo. Web. 6 May 2015.
"The Use of HIV Medicines During Pregnancy." 30 April 2014. AIDSinfo. Web. 6 May 2015.
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