Therefore, without a stronger message in support of voluntary testing the guidelines may become a way to discriminate against pregnant women who are HIV positive. Bibliography Rogers, Martha, Simonds, R.J.; March 15, 1996; Preventing Prenatal HIV Infection "How Far Have We Come? "; Journal of the American Medical Association Volume 19; Page 1514 Voelker, Rebecca; April 5, 1996; US Public Health Service Recommends Counseling and HIV Testing For All Pregnant Women; Journal of the American Medical Association; Volume 19; page 977 Wolfe, Maxine Ph.D.; October 1, 1996; Mothers To Infant HIV Transmission 076 Update; Women Alive; page 6
When Parents Reject Interventions to Reduce Postnatal Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission.Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2001;155: 927-33. 3. Udo Schuklenk, PhD, and Anita Kleinsmidt, LLB, LLM, Rethinking Mandatory HIV Testing During Pregnancy in Areas With High HIV Prevalence Rates: Ethical and Policy Issues, American Journal of Public Health , Vol 97, No. 7, 1179-83, July 2007
Furthermore, since these findings were released along with the recommendation that prenatal testing be mandatory for all pregnant women the cases of perinatally transmitted AIDS reported in the United States have been cut in half. AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study 076 produced evidence that mandatory prenatal testing would be effective, but it is plausible that the study itself could have been more effective. The studies performed were statistically sound and le... ... middle of paper ... ...n. Prenatal testing offers a better opportunity to prevent the spread of HIV infection from mother to child than screening performed after the baby is born. This is because babies born to HIV- positive mothers who are treated prenatally and during delivery have an estimated 8 % chance of contracting the virus. A baby treated after delivery may benefit from the drug, but will likely remain infected.
At-home testing for HIV is supposed to reduce the number of individuals which are unaware that they are infected with HIV. In July 2012, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the sale of the first rapid home testing kit in the USA (Food and Drug Administration 2012). Interestingly, there have been many pros and cons about this testing (Arnold 2012; Whellams 2008; Wright and Katz 2006; Sibbald 2000). This paper will analyze the advantages and disadvantages of the introduction of an HIV home testing kit in Indonesia and argue that such a kit would be beneficial for high risk populations in Indonesia. The main objection for allowing at home HIV testing to be sold in Indonesia concerns the lack of counseling part in self testing.
1.0 Introduction This essay explores the recent debate surrounding the restrictions placed on the availability of the Plan B One-Step pharmaceutical, which prevents pregnancy after sexual intercourse. Five main questions have been identified to analyze this debate and these five questions are presented in Sections 2.0 through 6.0, respectively. Section 7.0 presents a brief conclusion and References are provided at the end of the document. As background for these analyses, it may be helpful to understand chronology of the events as described in The New York Times article, “Judge Strikes Down Age Limits on Morning-After Pill” : • Plan B One-Step is a morning after pharmaceutical pill, sold by TEVA, designed to prevent pregnancy when taken after sexual intercourse; sometimes as emergency contraception. • In 1999, FDA approved Plan B as a “prescription-only product.” • In 2001, a citizen’s petition was filed to make available without a prescription Plan B.
(1996). Ethical and legal issues. Tb & Hiv, (11), 22-23 Thomas, M., Rogers, R., & Maclean, R. (2003). Physician perceptions and knowledge of the legal and ethical issues regarding HIV/AIDS confidential disclosure in managing persons with HIV/AIDS at an academic medical center (AMC). Internet Journal Of Law, Healthcare And Ethics, 1(2), Wilson, E. E., Tanzosh, T. T., & Maldarelli, F. F. (2013).
Physicians may be able to offer the drug, to be sold under the brand name Mifprex, in as soon as a month. This drug can induce an abortion in the first seven weeks of pregnancy. United States say, this will forver change the state of abortion services in America, giving women a safe and private alternative surgical ab... ... middle of paper ... ...cine for sale in September 1998. Withholding the pills from county clinic patients harms poor women. The pills act before a new life has begun, by preventing ovulation or implantation of a fertilized egg.
According to the Institute of Governmental Studies, ‘’the proposition requires doctors to notify a minor’s parent or legal guardian 48 hours before performing an abortion. The teens have the right to apply for a waiver from a judge, and a physician may perform an abortion without notification in a medical emergency; also requires that physicians report abortions. ‘’ In fact, the Prop 85 did not pass, 3.9 millions voters (which equals to 45.8%) voted for it; while 4.6 millions voters (54.2%) voted for NO. 1) In my opinion, Prop 85 is the right choice to protect the teens, also provide an opportunity for parents to offer their supports and guidance. It will produce a positive effect on society, protect hurting teen girls, and provide an opportunity for parents to offer their support and guidance.
People are no longer able to have several intimate relationships before marriage without the fear of contracting this death threatening virus (Kübler-Ross 29). In the 1980’s, HIV and AIDS were considered to be “gay diseases”, meaning they could only be contracted by gay men. This conception was proven to be false when children were born with the disease because their mother contracted it. Mother to child transmission of HIV occurs when a woman infected with HIV transmits the virus to her baby ... ... middle of paper ... ...-aids/living-with-hiv-aids/parenting-a-child-with- hiv.html>. Piot, Peter, M.D., Ph.D., and Thomas C. Quinn, M.D.