Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an enveloped retrovirus. It affects the immune system and the body loses its ability to fight diseases. It is mainly transferred by sexual contact. However, it can also be transmitted by contact with body fluid like blood, breast milk and so on (CDC, 2016). A patient is said to have AIDS when he/her suffer from many opportunistic infections (CDC, 2016).
HIV is one of the global public health issues that have taken millions of lives till date. According to the CDC (2016), HIV has taken about 1.2 million people lives globally. The prevalence of HIV infected people is very high. There were approximately 36.9 million people who were living with HIV, with about 2.0 million people are newly infected with HIV in 2014 globally (CDC, 2016).
In the United States more than 1.2 million people have HIV infection and many are unaware about their infection. About 50,000 new HIV cases are diagnosed each year. Some groups are affected more than others (CDC, 2016).
Previously, HIV was considered a disease associated with young persons. However, in present day, it is recognized as the disease that affects people of all ages. The risk factors of HIV are same for the younger as well as the older population.
Overview of HIV
HIV is believed to be a mutation of the virus found in chimpanzees that cause immunodeficiency in Africa. It is supposed that the virus infected, human during hunting chimpanzee for meat and came in contacts with their blood (CDC, 2016). In the United States the first case of HIV was reported in June 1981 in homosexuals (Qian, Taylor, Fawal & Vermund, 2006).
HIV affects the immune system, especially a type of T cells (CD4 cells). Over time, HIV destroys the overal...
... middle of paper ...
... is seen that HIV prevalence among married people is less than unmarried. A study conducted in 6,090 male and females showed that 10.5% marriage had HIV compared with 15.7% among unmarried people (Shisana, Zungu-Dirwayi, Toefy, Simbayi, Malik, & Zuma. (2004). It can be hypothesized that legalization of gay marriage can decrease the prevalence of HIV in MSM. It can be said that marriage decreases multiple sexual partner; legalizing gay marriage contributes in decreasing discrimination, social isolation and abuse which will decrease substance abuse and risky sexual behavior and thus overcome the challenges in preventing HIV in MSM.
There is further need of research showing the impacts of gay marriage on HIV/STDs. The research should evaluate the benefits and harmful effects of gay marriage. The study should be longitudinal study, which contains different age of MSM.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- HIV/AIDS Introduction HIV, also known and the human immunodeficiency virus attacks and destroys the CD4 cells, these cells also known as the T-lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell found in the immune system which have the role of preventing disease, when the level of the CD4 cell decreases the ability of the body to fight and prevent disease also reduces; at this stage the person is said to have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDs) Epidemiology According to the world health organisation (WHO) there were 35.3 million people living with HIV in 2012.... [tags: AIDS, HIV, Immune system, Antiretroviral drug]
1332 words (3.8 pages)
- Stigma and seroconversion are a few familiar words that come to mind when dealing with HIV/AIDS. These are a few processes that people go through when they are indentified as being HIV positive. This is when their life on whole comes into contrast. This is so because people often take things like sex for granted and it is because of this some can’t live a healthy lifestyle. Just imagine finding out that you are positive. How will society accept you. What about the stigmatization that one goes through.... [tags: HIV, AIDS]
1670 words (4.8 pages)
- HIV and AIDS The AIDS and HIV virus is a very dangerous disease that sees no race, no color, no gender, no economic background and not even a specific age group. It can affect anyone, at any time if they put themselves in a situation where they could be at risk. AIDS stands for what is called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The virus causes the body's immune system to break down and become useless in fighting illness and bacteria. Even a common cold could lead to the death of a person affected with the AIDS virus.... [tags: HIV and AIDS]
692 words (2 pages)
- The Effects of HIV Mutations on the Immune System is deadly. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. HIV is classified as a RNA Retrovirus. A retrovirus uses RNA templates to produce DNA. For example, within the core of HIV is a double molecule of ribonucleic acid, RNA. When the virus invades a cell, this genetic material is replicated in the form of DNA. But, in order to do so, HIV must first be able to produce a particular Enzyme that can construct a DNA molecule using an RNA template. This enzyme, Called RNA-directed DNA polymerase, is also referred to as reverse Transcriptase because it reverses the normal cellular process of Transcription.... [tags: HIV and AIDS]
1693 words (4.8 pages)
- HIV/AIDS in the U.S.A. Human Immunodeficency Virus (HIV), virus of the retrovirus family, the agent that causes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). A person infected with HIV gradually loses immune function and becomes vulnerable to numerous infractions that can lead to AIDS. The virus was discovered in association with AIDS by three separate teams of researchers: first in 1983 by Luc Montagnier and scientists at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, and then in 1984 by Robert Gallo and his colleagues at the National Cancer Institute, on the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, and by Jay Levy and his colleagues at the University of California at San Francisco.... [tags: HIV and AIDS]
1778 words (5.1 pages)
- HIV/AIDS INTRODUCTION At the beginning of the 20th Century it was believed by many, including the United States Patent Office, that there was nothing else to invent. Now, 100 years later at the beginning of the new millenium the ancient Egyptian philosopher is more relevant, "there is nothing new under the Sun". While HIV/AIDS may be a new disease, there is nothing new about a novel epidemic, which can potentially or actually decimate a population. In the late middle ages, the Black, now known as the Bubonic Plague, swept through Europe killing virtually half the population.... [tags: STD, HIV, AIDS]
3478 words (9.9 pages)
- In 1981, the first cases of severe immune system deterioration were recognized developed unusual infections. The new disease was later named "AIDS". At that time, no one knew what was causing the disease. Since then, science has shown that the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the cause of AIDS. As HIV infection progresses, it weakens a person's ability to fight off diseases. By attacking the immune system, the virus leaves people more susceptible to other diseases. When a person with HIV contracts one of several additional diseases, or when a person's immune system shows serious deterioration, that person is classified as having AIDS.... [tags: STD, HIV, AIDS]
1276 words (3.6 pages)
- HIV/AIDS Awareness How would you feel if you saw a four-year-old girl have to watch her mother die a slow painful death from AIDS. Well this is what millions of children face everyday living in Africa. Do you ever stop and think about how lucky you are to live a happy and healthy life or do you just take it for granted. An estimated 25 million adults and children are living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa, and AIDS has orphaned an estimated twelve million children. HIV/AIDS is one of the biggest challenges the world faces today.... [tags: HIV and AIDS]
925 words (2.6 pages)
- HIV/AIDS No one can be certain about how or when the AIDS virus emerged. The closest related disease would be a simian immunodeficiency virus. This is where the suggestion arose that this disease was first contracted from a primate. It has also been thought that this once primate-only disease had evolved and somehow became transmitted to people. On June 5, 1981, the first report of AIDS hit the United States. The people weren't quite sure of what they were dealing with, so mistakenly, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention released an article concerning a strange outbreak of pneumonia within the male homosexual community.... [tags: HIV and AIDS]
874 words (2.5 pages)
- With reference to one animal or human disease, explain why its economic consequences can vary spatially. Introduction There are many diseases, which produce economic consequences and which can vary in their effect depending on location. Some are Tuberculosis (TB), Malaria, Ebola Virus and AIDs. Throughout this report I am going to focus on the AIDs virus. HIV is the Human immunodeficiency virus, and AIDs is the Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, which it causes. HIV is a slow retrovirus, which means that not only does it take months to show any symptoms and years to develop fully.... [tags: HIV, AIDS, Health]
1969 words (5.6 pages)