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Information on Streptococcus Pneumoniae

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Streptococcus pneumoniae is a Gram-positive and fast-growing bacteria which inhabit upper respiratory tract in humans. Moreover, it is an aerotolerant anaerobe and usually causes respiratory diseases including pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis, peritonitis, paranasal sinusitis, septic arthritis, and osteomyelitis (Todar, 2003). According to Tettelin et al., more than 3 million of children die from meningitis or pneumonia worldwide (2001). S.pneumoniae has an enzyme known as autolysin that is responsible for disintegration and disruption of epithelial cells. Furthermore, S.pneumoniae has many essential virulence factors like capsule which is made up of polysaccharides that avoids complement C3b opsonization of cells by phagocytes. Many vaccines contain different capsular antigens which were isolated from various strains (Todar, 2003). There are plenty of S.pneumoniae strains that developed resistance to most popular antibiotics like macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and penicillin since 1990 (Tettelin et al., 2001). Antibiotic resistance was developed by the gene mutation and selection processes that, as a consequence, lead to the formation of penicillin-binding proteins, etc. (Todar, 2003). People infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) have a sequential destruction of CD4 T cells which always lead to a weakening of the immune system. Despite the reduction of CD4 T cells, the macrophages and dendritic cells are also affected by HIV. Moreover, HIV causes a dysfunctionality in B cells, CD8 T cells, and innate immune system cells (Shipley, 2013). For instance, the reduction of perforin production and IFN-γ secretion in CD8 T cells cannot help effector T cells to destruct virus-infected cells (Kuerten et al., 2008). The reduc... ... middle of paper ... ...PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://moodle.nu.edu.kz/course/view.php?id=2650 (Accessed December 11, 2013). Swiatlo, E., & Ware, D. (2003). Novel vaccine strategies with protein antigens of Streptococcus pneumoniae. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 38(1), 1-7. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0928824403001469 (Accessed December 11, 2013). Tettelin, H., Nelson, K. E., Paulsen, I. T., Eisen, J. A., Read, T. D., Peterson, S., et al. (2001). Complete genome sequence of a virulent isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Science. Retrieved from http://www.sciencemag.org/content/293/5529/498.short (Accessed December 12, 2013). Todar, K. (2003). Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pneumococcal pneumonia. Todar's Online Textbook of Bacteriology. Retrieved from http://textbookofbacteriology.net/S.pneumoniae.html (Accessed December 12, 2013).