Bard, K. A. (2015). An introduction to the archaeology of Ancient Egypt 2nd ed. The Environmental Background to Pharaonic Civilization. pp.49-66.
The chosen chapter of the book is mainly showing the influence of the environment on urban origins. Ancient Egypt is situated in northeast Africa (now in the Middle East), initially in the Nile valley. Nile across the Ancient Egypt and by the White Nile originated in central Africa and the Blue Nile in Sudan’s converges. Nile through the forest and grassland region from July to November each year and regularly wet the dry land on both sides. The earliest “Egyptian” appeared in Paleolithic Northeast Africa but they settle near the Nile until the climate began to dry. Therefore, Nile is an important resource for people in Ancient Egypt. With the settlement of people, some small groups and some minor towns appear which is the beginning form of the cities is.
Hammond, M. (1972). The City in the Ancient World. Egypt: Civilization of Palaces, Temples and Tombs. pp.65-76.
In the chosen chapter,...
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...similar agricultural communities which are small and also animal husbandry. Then with the rise and down in different dynasty, cities were built and cities started to development through the agriculture and animal husbandry.
The City is a part of the greatest human creations; it is not only an important symbol of human civilization development, but also laid a solid material and spiritual foundation and for the further progress of human civilization. The formation of the city; the social system and ideology and culture is closely related. The origin of the city and the understanding of the development of the city are important foundations of learning and management of the city. Therefore, the knowledge of urban origins; urban development and morphology will make the management of city become more effective, and improve the development of the city better in further.
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