Health Hazards, Pollution And Waste Management Issues Essay example

Health Hazards, Pollution And Waste Management Issues Essay example

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There is an ever-changing process taking place, changing livability as we know it. Human migrations are taking place, where people switch from living in rural to urban communities in search of an improved quality of life. Sorensen and Okata (2011), find that 50% of the world’s population currently lives in an urban setting (p. 1). Large metropolitan areas are becoming densely compact creating mega cities, where populations exceed more than ten million people (p. 6). Problems with sustainable development are found in both developed and developing countries alike. Large cities in developing countries have experienced great amounts of urbanization with a lack of environmental protection, creating problems such as: health hazards, pollution and waste management issues. Evans (2002), explains that these cities are not supplying basic necessities to the public, such as “livelihoods and healthy habitats for ordinary people” (p. 1). Developed countries also suffer in creating sustainable cities, dealing with problems with regards to pollution, housing and transportation. Sorensen and Okata (2011), find that the lack of managing urban fringe land has created urban sprawl, with problems that “sprawl causes increased air pollution, long-distance commuting, heavy energy use, and wasted land” (p. 4). With the future of urban development leading towards a wasteful and unsustainable path, the idea of creating more sustainable cities serves as an option for improving urban areas benefitting society. This paper will shed light on the analysis of the different challenges faced when creating more sustainable cities. Different views will be presented on how sustainability can be defined. Furthermore, this paper will examine the similarities and d...


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...transportation. The writers differ in their analysis when examining the approaches to reaching sustainable cities. This section will analyze four important ideas on how cities can become more sustainable.
Campbell (1996), argues that it is necessary to focus on three major points, being the environment, economy and society when planning a sustainable city. He constructs a prism which holds each of these features at a point and the center being sustainable development. Campbell (1996), argues that it is necessary to maintain a balance between all of these factors equally, and focusing on only one factor may lead to “environmental racism, pollution creating jobs [and] growth control” (p. 298). Campbell (1996), finds that to reach sustainable development, planners must reassess sustainability because its current form used “romanticizes our sustainable past” (p. 296).

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