Works Cited Carmona, M., Tiesdell, S., Heath, T. and Oc, T. (eds.). 2010. Public Places, Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design. London and New York: Routledge.
), The global cities reader. New York: Routledge.
Fifth, it will discuss and speculate the further development of Hong Kong on the areas of economy, planning and policy. Seventh, a summary would be sort out. Basic theory of City Economies Urban economics is an economic discipline to study the economic relations and its regular pattern of cities under the development process. The main content of basic theory of the urban economy includes urbanization, city size, and internal structure of the urban economy and so on. As urban economics is also a part of social science, so it subject to be constrained by social and political system.
And interpret the causes and effects of urban sprawl, and what can we take to mitigate this phenomenon? Secondly, the paper introduces the most famous new planning movements such as Sustainable Development, Smart Growth, New Urbanism and so on. Finally, based on above observation, the paper proposes that lessons should be drawn from North American’s mistakes and not follows them. Furthermore, the paper probes into several problems in seeking a proper urban space model and policy on the process of urbanization. We must alert urban sprawl and keep on exploring sustainable urban governance policy and pay attention to induct the public opinion on consumption and culture in finding for the mechanism of structural innovation.
I believe the best way to analyze Singapore’s housing strategy and policy is through a comparative piece, analyzing the historical development and policy of one particular city and comparing and contrasting its development with Singapore. I believe looking at the historical context o... ... middle of paper ... ...zed- I believe it will be beneficial for my research to look at newspaper articles in particular for this section. These articles will give me better insight as to how citizen’s interact within these housing problems and their interpretation of government policy. • Implications of the analysis (20%) o What can we learn from Brasilia’s mistakes? What can we learn from Singapore’s success?
The contemporary field of urban sociology provides substantive examinations that engage both a macro- and micro-lens into the construction of urban spaces and inequalities. In the discussion that follows I address some of the leading theories and common threads that enable urban sociologists to engage in the comprehensive examination of how and why urban inequality persists. In the final section, I draw upon theorists and propose a research perspective that I believe might help to further advance the sociological inquiry of urban inequality. Through the Macro-Lens: Local/State/National and Global Actors In the early tradition of the Chicago School, theorists engaged an urban ecological lens that viewed cities as symbiotic, naturally evolving spaces that expanded through a process of organic succession to generate the organization of city life (Burgess, 1925; Park, 1936). Since the 1960’s, the purview of contemporary urban sociology has shifted to engage a macro-lens that examines how larger social, economic and political factors shape the urban landscape more broadly.
The author points out two leverage points: material stocks and flow, that is, a urban infrastructure built by stocks and flows will have big effect on system operation; and self-organization, that is organism and social system can change themselves by creating new structure and behavior. Deyond gives the example of Urban-think tank (U-TT), an architecture firm, using their projects vertical Gymnasiums (VGs) and Metro Cable to illustrate those two leverage points. The second article From Product to Process: Building on Urban Think Tank’s Approach to the Informal City introduce a firm named Urban- think tank (U-TT) that focuses on the city problem and tries to start proposal for the city in building projects in conflict zones. They have designed many projects in different parts of the world. Similar to this urban acupuncture is the way that “cures” the city and social problems by making changes of certain part in the city.
Amherst: The University of Massachusetts Press, 1994. Schultz, Stanley K. Constructing Urban Culture. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989. Schuyler, David. The New Urban Landscape.
Urban dwellers should use value space as the main consideration while creating urban space. In this text, the right to appropriation dismisses the idea of private ownership of urban space. It is against private ownership of urban space for capitalist production (Lefebvre, 1996). Therefore, Lefebvre’s vision about the right to the city is a radical renovation of urban social and spatial relations. In this way, it would be able to transform present liberal-democratic citizenship relations and the capitalist social relations.