Gender Discrimination: Examining How Women are Denied Full Equality in the Workplace

Gender Discrimination: Examining How Women are Denied Full Equality in the Workplace

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The goal on gender equality and impact of gender discrimination varies from country to country, depending on the social, cultural and economic contexts. Anti-discrimination laws have performed a critical role in expanding work place opportunities for women, yet they are still denied full equality in the workplace. Even though they can now secure powerful professional, academic and corporate positions once reserved for men, the ever present glass ceiling still deters the advancement of large segment of the female workforce (Gregory, 2003). Interest in the careers of females remained strong among both scholars and practitioners. Women have made considerable progress in entering the managerial ranks also but not at the highest levels. However, the promotion of women who hold top management positions increased only slightly during the last decade (U.S. Department of Labor, 1992). Shrinking gender differences between men and women in job related skills and aspirations may not reduce employer discrimination that is rooted in the belief that women’s emotions prevent them from managing effectively (Kanter, 1977). Stumpf and London (1981) identified criteria that are commonly used when decisions are made about management promotions. The specified job-irrelevant criteria, such as gender, race and appearance, and job-relevant criteria, such as related work experience, being a current member of the organization offering the position, past performance, education and seniority.. The central question is whether the hiring, development, and promotion practices of employers that discriminated against women in the past have been remedied or continue in more subtle forms to impede women’s advancement up in the hierarchy

The term glass ceiling, fi...


... middle of paper ...


... been appointed to look into the laws discriminatory to women at workplace. 5 percent of jobs have been embarked for women in all government and government-controlled organizations. (Bhutto, 1995)

The glass ceiling in the corporate world that deprives women of top jobs exists in all fields in Pakistan soon after its liberation, 1947. A research project was undertaken on behalf of the United Nations Development Programme some time ago to explore the existence and magnitude of the glass ceiling effect in Pakistani organizations. Two organizations, both in the service sector, were selected for the purpose. Special scales were designed and perfected to measure the effect. Using these measures it was revealed that the glass ceiling effect did operate in both the organizations although more so in one than the other. So it is not a mere apprehension (Hashmi, 2004).


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