Typhoid Fever

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Typhoid Fever

Typhoid fever is an intestinal illness, which can result in great suffering and even death. At first it was commonly confused with other fever causing illnesses until 1869 when William Jenner performed a careful analysis and found differences in the different types of typhus fevers. In this paper, I will discuss the bacteria that causes typhoid fever, discuss the signs, symptoms, method of transmission, past and current epidemics, and whether or not there has been a decrease in outbreaks in the past few years.

Typhoid fever is caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi, a member of the genus Salmonella, which is included in the Enterobacteriaceae family. Salmonella typhi cells are aerobic, gram negative rods that affect the gastrointestinal tracts of humans, and occasionally the bloodstream. There are three antigenic structures of Salmonella: the H antigen, O antigen, and Vi antigen. The O antigens are responsible for the production of fever. They are located inside the cell wall which enables them to withstand heat. The H antigen is a protein structure that makes up the subunits of flagella, so only bacteria that is motile will have this antigen. The Vi antigen, also known as virulence, is a polysaccharide that is located on the exterior of the cell wall and inhibits phagocytosis. Vi antigens are more susceptible to heat because they are on the exterior of the cell wall and are destroyed by boiling. Therefore, boiling water and cooking food fully will immediately destroy the Vi antigens that cause Salmonella infections. (glaxosmithkline.com)

Typhoid fever is caused by an infection of the bacterium Salmonella typhi. It is a bacterium that usually enters a person through oral means, though it can...

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...butor" Biological Society of Washington D.C, April 6, 1907

Ziporyn, Terra "disease in the Popular American Press: The case of Diptheria, Typhoid Fever, and Syphilis, 1870- 1920. Greenwood Press, New York. 1988

"Mechanism Leading To Life -Threatening Infection Identified by UCSD School of Medicine Researchers" April 2004, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/03/04318073929.htm

"Down The Drain: Typhoid Fever City" Chicago Public Library digital collections, April 2004 http://www.chipublib.org/digital/sewers/history3.html

"Diseases-Typhoid Fever-Bacteria" GlaxoSmithKline April 2004


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