Insulin is a main component in the regulation of the body’s metabolism. Insulin is regulated by digestion processes. At the beginning of digestion, carbohydrates are broken down into glucose and other sugar molecules. Glucose is then directly absorbed into the bloodstream which causes blood glucose levels to peak. At the same time, the pancreas releases insulin to allow the glucose to be absorbed into cells either to be used as energy or stored. Once levels are balanced, the pancreas reduces production of insulin. In a patient with Type II diabetes, insulin may be produced and able to attach to receptor cells but glucose is unable to move into the cell to be used. As the disease progresses, the pancreas is unable to produce sufficient insulin to overcome the resistance. This causes the beta cells to become damaged which results in permanent hyperglycemia (Diabetes- Type 2).
Diabetes refers to a set of several different diseases. It is a serious health problem throughout the world and fourth leading cause of death by disease in the country. All types of diabetes result in too much sugar, or glucos in the blood. To understand why this happens it would helpful if we understand how the body usually works. When we eat, our body breaks down the food into simpler forms such as glucose. The glucose goes into the bloodstream, where it then travels to all the cells in your body. The cells use the glucose for energy. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps move the glucose from bloodstream to the cells. The pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus further explains the concept on how this disease works. Pancreas plays an important role of the metabolism of glucose by means of secreting the hormones insulin and glucagon. These hormones where then secreted by Islets of Langerhans directly to the blood. Inadequate secretion of insulin results on impaired metabolism of glucose, carbohydrates, proteins and fats which then result to hyperglycemia and glycosuria. Hyperglycemia is the most frequently observed sign of diabetes and is considered the etiologic source of diabetic complications both in the body and in the eye. On the other hand, glucagon is the hormone that opposes the act of insulin. It is secreted when blood glucose levels fall.
The prevalence of diabetes according to the CDC is 26 million Americans currently diagnosed with diabetes, 79 million with pre-diabetes, and 7 million unaware they have diabetes.1 Diabetes is currently more prevalent in the western countries due to physical inactivity and obesity, but as more Eastern countries develop the western lifestyle it becomes an increasing worldwide epidemic.1 The risk for developing type 2 diabetes increases with age (especially after age 40), but is increasing most rapidly in the adolescent and young generation.1 It is therefore critical that education as well as drug therapies are implemented to decrease the rising prevalence of this illness.
Throughout the whole of the United Kingdom, between 2 and 3 of every 100 people have a known form of diabetes (DTC, 2004). What is diabetes? Explained simply, it is a disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin. In the normal state of glucose function, there is a stable release and uptake of glucose, regulated by two hormones produced in the pancreas, glucagon and insulin. There are two distinct mechanisms which give rise to the abnormal blood glucose levels seen in patients with type I and type II diabetes. In type I diabetes, a deficiency in insulin production at the pancreas results in elevated blood glucose levels due to the lack of hormonal regulation. In type II diabetes, although the pancreas produces regular levels of insulin, the body resists the effect of insulin, inhibiting the ability of insulin to break down glucose in the blood. Because of the inherent differences in the biochemical mechanisms of these two diseases, the characteristics associated with type I and type II diabetes are very different. The typical onset of type I diabetes is usually ...
Diabetes mellitus also known simply as diabetes refers to a group of metabolic diseases which affect the body’s homeostatic mechanism used for maintaining and regulating the body’s blood sugar levels. Diabetes is a chronic condition which, in 2013 was estimated to be affecting 382 million people worldwide. People suffering from diabetes are required to constantly be vigilant of their blood sugar levels to ensure it does not go below or above optimum levels. Depending on the type of diabetes and glucose level range, they may need to inject themselves with insulin or eat high sugar foods to restabilise their body. Failure to do so can lead to other long term health effects.
Type II diabetes is a serious problem that has been increasing over the years. The CDC predicts that by the year 2050 one in every three US adults could have diabetes. Type II diabetes, happens when the body gradually loses its ability to use or produce insulin, this is the leading cause of cases of diabetes. A person with diabetes has a lot of risk factors that come with this disease. Patients with diabetes have a two to four time greater chance of having a stroke and also having a heart disease related death. Diabetes is the leading cause of new blindness and non traumatic amputations.
Because the transporters for glucose to be stored and metabolised are Insulin dependent in most areas of the body (except the Blood Brain Barrier), an absence or deficiency in Insulin results in Increased levels of glucose in the blood. Diabetes is diagnosed when the blood glucose level of a normal healthy individual is above 11.1mmol/l and in a fasting state above 7mmol/l. Diabetes can occur because of two factors:
As of the year 2011, 28.8 million people living in the United States were suffering from diabetes. This accounts for 8.3% of the US population (CDC, 2011). While this number may seem small, diabetes is a rapidly growing disease that needs a solution given that it is the seventh leading cause of death. According to the American Diabetes Association, (A.D.A.), diabetes is a condition in which the pancreas is unable to produce the amount of insulin needed to convert food, sugars, and starches to energy for the body. Therefore, the blood sugar levels rise, also known as hyperglycemia. There are two types of diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 diabetes is commonly found in children or young adults and only makes up 5% of diabetes cases. A person with Type 1 diabetes does not produce insulin at all. Type 2 diabetes is the more common form of the disease. People who struggle...
Diabetes is a disease in which a person’s body in unable to make or utilize insulin properly which affects blood sugar levels. Insulin is a hormone that is produced in the pancreas, which helps to regulate glucose (sugar) levels, break down carbohydrates and fats, and is essential to produce the body’s energy. The CDC (2013) offers reliable insight, summarized here, into the different types of diabetes, some causes, and health complications that may arise from the disease.
You may ask yourself, what is diabetes? Diabetes is usually a lifelong (chronic) disease in which there is a high level of sugar in the blood. To understand that though, you must first understand the job of insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to control your blood sugar. When you eat, your body turns that food into a sugary substance called glucose. Now your pancreas is supposed to release insulin. However, if you have diabetes, that process doesn’t work, causing ...
Insulin is a hormone used to control blood glucose. This hormone can act on cells to: stimulate glucose, protein, and lipid metabolism. Understanding insulin is important for knowing its effect if there is an inadequate amount in the body. Before scientists understood insulin, people who’s bodies stopped producing the hormone
The pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus in is related to the insulin hormone. Insulin is secreted by cells in the pancreas and is responsible for regulating the level of glucose in the bloodstream. It also aids the body in breaking down the glucose to be used as energy. When someone suffers from diabetes, however, the body does not break down the glucose in the blood as a result of abnormal insulin metabolism. When there are elevated levels of glucose in the blood, it is known as hyperglycemia. If the levels continue to remain high over an extended period of time, damage can be done to the kidneys, cardiovascular systems; you can get eye disorders, or even cause nerve damage. When the glucose levels are low in one’s body, it is called hypoglycemia. A person begins to feel very jittery, and possibly dizzy. If that occurs over a period of time, the person can possibly faint. Diabetes mellitus occurs in three different forms - type 1, type 2, and gestational.