Homeostasis Essay

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Homeostasis is the biological process that maintains a stable internal environment despite what occurs in the external environment. Chemicals and bodily functions are maintained in a balanced state so the body may function optimally. There are various systems in the human body that require maintenance through the processes of biochemical checks and balances so they may function properly. One of these systems includes the rise and fall of blood glucose and is under the control of the homeostatic regulation process. Homeostasis is essential in blood glucose regulation as high blood glucose levels (hyperglycaemia) and low blood glucose levels (hypoglycaemia) are dangerous and can affect the human body in many ways and can also lead
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Our body obtains the energy by digesting the carbohydrates into glucose. Volumes of glucose are required by the body to create ATP. ATP is short for 'Adenosine Triphosphate ' and is an energy carrier. When we consume too many carbohydrates our body produces a lot of glucose and as a result blood glucose levels rise and sometimes they may rise over the normal range of blood glucose concentration. To bring it back within the healthy range, the homeostatic system of blood glucose regulation is used. The blood flows through the pancreas where the beta cells, receptors, detect the high blood glucose level. To counteract this stimuli beta cells alert the control centre, which are also the beta cells located in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. The secretion of insulin has to be done quickly but can only be carried out when insulin gene is switched on. Turning on the insulin gene switch can take 30 minutes to an hour therefore, the production of insulin by beta cells are done in advance and are packaged in vesicles right until blood glucose rises. Glucose comes into the beta cell to trigger the vesicle that contains the insulin to move towards the plasma membrane and fuse. This releases the insulin into the bloodstream where they are distributed throughout the body and only affect specific target cells. The receptor, a protein, on the target cell’s plasma membrane recognises and connects…show more content…
The main cause of diabetes is that the insulin produced by the pancreas is not working properly so the body has an abnormally high blood glucose level. There are two important reasons why this happens: either there is no insulin present in the body, Type 1 Diabetes, or there is insulin present but it is unable to work, Type 2 Diabetes.
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is also referred to as insulin-dependent as the secretion of the hormone insulin by the pancreas is reduced to minor levels due to the destruction of the pancreatic beta cells by immune system of the body. Therefore, Type 1 Diabetes is an autoimmune condition due to the fact that the body is harming the pancreas with antibodies so beta cells cannot make any insulin for bloodstream to take in glucose. The fact that the cells in the body cannot take in glucose means that it builds up in the blood and hyperglycaemia occurs. This abnormally high level of blood glucose is able to harm the nervous system, tiny blood vessels in the kidneys, heart and the eyes. Type 1 Diabetes is fatal when left untreated as it then causes heart disease, kidney disease, damage to the nerves, stroke and

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