Trauma Theory and PTSD Trauma relates to a type of damage to the mind that comes from a severely distressing event. A traumatic event relates to an experience or repeating events that overwhelmingly precipitated in weeks, months, or decades as one tries to cope with the current situations that can cause negative consequences. People’s general reaction to these events includes intense fear, helplessness or horror. When children experience trauma, they show disorganized or agitative behavior. In addition, the trigger of traumas includes some of the following, harassment, embarrassment, abandonment, abusive relationships, rejection, co-dependence, and many others.
Childhood trauma has been shown to affect the victim throughout his or her entire life. The developments of severe psychological disorders have been linked to early life traumatic events. In particular Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) are common in those with traumatic childhoods. These disorders will be identified and evidence presented to demonstrate that childhood trauma is directly linked and responsible for these deviations from typical development. Childhood trauma can occur when a child experiences something like physical, sexual or emotional abuse are some of the most common types of trauma to cause lasting psychological damage.
Based on developing client independence this approach attempts to remove therapists’ interpretation of behaviours associated with psychodynamic therapies (Burnard 2005), thus promoting growth and personal goal development. When used in therapeutic contexts metaphors can be both a powerful and sensitive form of language designed to bring about perceptual and/or behavioural change (Hutchings 1998). However, as a verbal component of the Person-Centred approach metaphors can enhance or inhibit a client’s progress. Through use of these verbal illustrations truths can be explored and understood by clients without the ‘glare’ of realism, removing stigmatisation and allowing clients to become more acute to their own perceptions (Hutchings 1998). It is at this time, where clients feel therapists are non-judgmental, goals and responsibilities are most likely to be instigated (Mallinson et al 1996).
According to the American Psychological Association, trauma is an emotional response to a terrible event. Some terrible events that happen all too often are rape, natural disasters or an accident. Immediately following the event shock and denial are likely to occur, but in the long-term flashbacks, unpredictable emotions and troubled relationships can arise. Defining emotional trauma on a child. Emotional trauma in a child can be created by bullying, emotional abuse, death of loved ones, separation from parent, or chaos and dysfunction in the household.
There are four types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect. Physical abuse can injure a child severely. Domestic Violence is a worldwide problem and affects the health and well-being of those open to it. Children that are exposed to physical abuse are at risk for depression, social problems, and learning disabilities. Child physical abuse has been associated with increased risk for symptoms of depression and anxiety in clinical research (Schneider).
Explaining the client’s personality and behavior to the client and prescribing actions that the client should take, are of little last value. Instead, person-centered therapist should establish a relationship that is helpful to enable the client to discover within himself/herself the capacity. Although there are no specific intervention strategies in person-centered therapy, Carl Rogers hypothesized that client’s capacity to grow and self-actualize will be most facilitated and released when the therapist can create a psychological climate characterized by (a) congruence; (b) unconditional positive regards; and (c) empathic understanding. These not only serve as hypotheses, but also desirable goals as well as counseling manners in person-centered therapy. (a) Congruence The very first thing the person-centered therapist has to do is to build a nonthreatening psychological atmosphere conducive to client’s growth and therapeutic change- the therapist is characterized by congruence in the therapeutic relationship.
According to Corsini and Wedding (2013), cognitive therapy aims at adjusting information and initiate positive change in all systems by acting through the cognitive systems. From my perspective, what is very appealing about cognitive therapy is that the therapist can challenge their client 's viewpoints and rational. Furthermore, cognitive therapy allows people to perceive the world and shape behavior based on their thoughts and feelings. According to Frances, Miller, and Mack (2005), cognitive therapy is used to treat addiction, personality disorders, depression, anxiety, and compulsive disorders such as gambling, shopping, and sexual behaviors. Moreover, cognitive therapists assess the development of their patient’s beliefs about themselves, their early life experiences, exposure to stressful circumstances, and the overall development of their beliefs (Frances et al., 2005).
Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT) is designed to confront a client’s irrational beliefs (Corey 2017). First created by Albert Ellis, REBT emphasizes the importance of assessing, deciding, and thinking about one’s own cognitive process. Therapists who use this technique often confront a client’s irrational thoughts directly; the therapist encourages new, more beneficial ways of thinking. The current client is suffering from feelings of anxiety and inadequateness brought on by her father’s disapproval; many of the thoughts she has are irrational and she constantly blames herself for her father’s actions and beliefs about her. REBT would be beneficial to her situation because it would help identify
Anger is an emotion that can vary in intensity from an irritation, all the way to a severe outburst of rage that can be harmful to others and harmful to the child themselves. Anger can also be a result of unmet desires and expectations we have for those in our lives. With this unfulfilled expectati... ... middle of paper ... ...are many professionals and doctors constantly reevaluating the effectiveness of anger management treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy. After several studies and collection of data in and outside of classrooms with our youth, alterations to the treatments are made to ensure higher success rates in the future. Although psychologists and therapists are making great efforts, anger and aggression are still proving to be a problem in our classrooms.
The psychotherapists concentrate on patient’s present life and thoughts. After a successful therapy, patient changes behavior, the way of thinking and learns to cope and manage stress. According to Varvogli and Darviri (2011), this therapy was successfully used for reducing stress, anxiety and depressions for years. This solution has many advantages. First of all, it is feasible since psychotherapy that is conducted by professional psychotherapists and psychologists helps to adolescents to overcome their pressure.